The Indian Tribes of North America by John R. Swanton The territory of the present State of California was discovered in 1542 by a Portuguese navigator in the Spanish service, J. R. Cabrillo. In 1578 Sir Francis Drake landed at Drake's Bay, opened communication with the natives, and took possession of the country in the name of England, calling it New Albion. It was explored by the Spaniard S. Viscayno in 1602, but no attempt was made at colonization until the Franciscan Fathers established a mission at San Diego in 1769. Within the next 50 years they founded 21 missions and gathered 20,000 Indians about them, but the number of neophytes continually fell off and the power of the missions declined with them, especially after Mexican government had succeeded to Spanish. Transfer of the country to the United States and the rush of immigrants following upon the discovery of gold in 1848 was still more disastrous to the Indians and this disaster extended to parts of the State which the Spaniards had not reached. From this time on the history of the Indians of this area is one long story of debauchery and extermination. Reservations were set aside for most of the tribes, but the greater part of the survivors live scattered through the country as squatters or on land purchased by themselves. In dealing with the tribes of California, I have adopted the names given by Dr. Kroeber in his Handbook of the Indians of California (1925). An inspection of these shows us at once, however, that the tribal concept in most parts of the State is one imposed upon the Indians as a result of ethnological investigation rather than something recognized by themselves. It has a dialectic rather than a governmental or ceremonial base, but it is the best that can be done unless we adopt the impracticable alternative of treating each village group as a tribe. It is to be understood that, from the ordinary point of view as to what constitutes a tribe, this expedient is largely artificial. Under these circumstances it has seemed best not to follow a strictly alphabetic system throughout, or rather, to enter those tribes defined by their names as parts of larger groups under the more common group names, the qualifying word following, as: Paiute, Northern, and Yuki, Coast, instead of Northern Paiute and Coast Yuki. Connections in which they have become noted.- That few names of California tribes have found permanent lodgment in the geography of the region is not surprising when we consider the small number of names of this kind at all prominent. This is in keeping with the fact that tribal organizations as they were known in eastern North America were wanting over much of the State, and that where they existed they were generally small and insignificant. It also happens that a few real tribal names, or names that have been used to cover tribal groups, include peoples which extended into neighboring States and have been treated elsewhere. Under this hend come the names of Modoc County, Klamath River, Mohave River, Mono County and Lake, and Piute Peak. Still other names are derived from villages and small tribes, mere subdivisions of the main bodies. Among these may be mentioned Tuolumne County, Mokelumne Peak and River, Cosumnes River, Kaweah River. While the designation of the Shasta is a conspicuous one it is rather the mountain which has given name to the tribe than the tribe to the mountain, though in fact both are derived from a chief of the Shasta people. Following from the use of the term for Mount Shasta we have Shasta River, Shasta, Shasta Retreat, Shasta Springs. The history of the name Hupa has been somewhat similar. It has remained attached to the valley to which it was originally applied and to the tribe secondarily. Nevertheless, the valley name now serves to preserve in memory that of the people who occupied it. Achomawi. From adzuma or achoma, "river." Ko'm-maidum, Maidu name, meaning "snow people." Shawsash, Yuki name for the Achomawi taken to Round Valley Reservation. Connections.- The Achomawi were originally classed with the Atsugewi as one stock under the name Palaihnihan, the Achomawan stock of Merriam (1926), and this in turn constitutes the eastern branch of the Shastan stock, which in turn 18 now placed under the widely spread Hokan family. Location.- In the drainage area of Pit River from near Montgomery Creek in Shasta County to Goose Lake on the Oregon line, with the exception of the territory watered by Burney, Hat, and Horse or Dixie Valley Creeks. Subdivisions Kroeber (1925) gives the following: Achomawi, on Fall River. Astaklwi, in upper Hot Springs Valley. Atuami, in Big Valley. Hamnawi, on the South Fork of Pit River. Hantiwi, in lower Hot Springs Valley. Ilmawi, on the south slide of Pit River opposite Fort Crook. Madehsi, the lowest on Pit River along the big bend. C. H. Merriam (1926) says that Achomawi is the Madehsi name for the Astnkiwi which occupied all of Hot Springs Valley, and he adds the names of two other tribes between the last mentioned and Goose Lake, the Ko-se-al-lak'-te, and, higher up, at the lower end of the lake, the Ha'-we-si'-doc. Population.- Together with the Atsugewi, the Achomawi are estimated by Kroeber (1925) to have numbered 3,000 in 1770; in 1910 there were 985. According to the census of 1930, the entire Shastan stock numbered 844, and in 1937, 418 "Pit River" Indians were enumerated, only a portion of the stock apparently. Alliklik. Designation bestowed by the Ventureno Chumash; meaning unknown. Connections.- The Alliklik belonged to the Californian group of the Shoshonean division of the Uto-Aztecan linguistic stock, their closest relatives probably being the Serrano. Location.- On the upper Santa Clara River. Villages Akavavi Kashtu, Etseng, Huyang, Kuvung, and Pi'idhuku (on Piru Creek, the last mentioned at Piru); Kamulus (on Castac Creek); Kashtuk Tsawayung (on a branch of Castac Creek). Population.- The Alliklik together with the Serrano, Vanyume, and Kitanemuk, numbered 3,500 in 1770 and 150 in 1910. The census of 1930 returned 361 southern California Shoshoneans. Atsugewi. Their own name or that which the Achomnwi applied to them; significance unknown. Adwanuqdji, Ilmawi name. Hat Creek Indians, popular English name. Tcunolyana, Yana nsme. Connections.- With the Achomawi, the Atsugewi constituted the Palaihnihan or eastern group of the Shastan stock, more recently placed by Dixon and Kroeber (1919) in the Hokan family. Location.- On Burney, Hat, and Dixie Valley or Horse Creeks. Subdivisions Kroeber (1925) gives: Apwarukei (Dixie Valley people), Hat Creek people (native name unknown), and Wamari" (Burney Valley people). C. G. Merrism (1926) calls the Hat Creek people collectively At-soo-ka'-e (Atsugewi) and treats most of the Burney Valley Indians as part of the Atsugewi proper. Population.- Kroeber estimates that in 1770 there were 3,000 of the Atsugewi and the Achomawi together. The Shastan Indians numbered 844 in 1930. Bear River Indians. A body of Indians living along Bear River in the present Humboldt County for whom no suitable native name has been preserved. Also called: Ni'ekeni', name they applied to themselves and to the Mattole. Connections.- The Bear River Indians belonged to the Athapascan linguistic family, and were most, closely connected with the Mattole, Sinkyone, and Nongatl tribes to the south and east. Location.- As given above. (See North Carolina for a tribe similarly named.) Villages From the mouth of Bear River inland as given by Nomland (1938): Tcalko', at the mouth of Bear River. Chilsheck, on the site of the present Capetown. Chilenche, near the present Morrison Ranch. Selsche'ech, on a site marked by a large red rock 3-4 miles above the last. Tlanko, above the preceding. Estakana, at Gear's place, on the largest flat in the upper valley above Tlanko. Sehtla, about 7 miles above Capetown. Me'sseah, name for a natural amphitheater, the training place for shamans, about which lived a few families. Population.- Included with the Nongatl (q. v.). 1,129 were returned in the census of 1930. The United States Office of Indian Affairs reported 23 "Bear River" Indians in 1937. Cahuilla. A name perhaps of Spanish origin, but its significance is unknown. Also spelled Kawia. Connections.- The Cahuilla belonged to the southern California group of the Shoshonean division of the Uto-Aztecan stock. Location.- Mainly in the inland basin between the San Bernardino Range and the range extending southward from Mount San Jacinto. Subdivisions Desert Cahuilla, at northern end of the Colorado Desert. Mountain Cahuilla, in the mountains south of San Jacinto Peak. Western or Pass Cahuilla, centering in Palms Springs Canyon. Villages Duasno, on or near the Cahuilla Reservation. Juan Bautista, in San Bernardino County. Ekuawinet, at La Mesa, 2 miles south of Coachella. Kavinish, at Indian Wells. Cahuilla, on the Cahuilla Reservation. Kwaleki, in the San Jacinto Mountai Lawilvan or Sivel, at Alamo. Malki, on the Potrero Reservation in Cahnilla Valley east of Banning. Pachawal, at San Ygnacio. Palseta, at Cabezon. Paltewat, at Indio in Cahuilla Valley. Panachsa, in the San Jacinto Mountains. Sechi, in Cahuilla Valley. Sokut Henyil, at Martinez. Sapela, at San Ygnaeio. Temalwahish, at La Mesa. Torres, on Torres Reservation. Tova, at Agua Dulce. Wewutnowhu, at Santa Rosa. Population.- Kroeber (1925) estimates 2,500 Cahuilla in 1770; in 1910 there were about 800. (See Alliklik.) Connection in which their name has become noted.- The name Cahuilla is preserved in that of a village called Kaweah in Tulare County. Chemehuen. The Yuman name for this tribe and for the Paiute; significance unknown. Also called: Ah'alakat, Pima narne, meaning "small bows." Mat-hat-e-vatch, Yuma name, meaning "northerners." Ta'n-ta'wats, own name, meaning "southern men." Connections.- The Chemehuevi were a part of the true Paiute and were associated with them and the Ute in one linguistic subdivision of the Shoshonean division of the Uto-Aztecan linguistic stock. Location.- Anciently in the eastern half of the Mohave Desert. At a later date the Chemehuevi settled on Cottonwood Island, in Chemehuevi Valley, and at other points on Colorado River. Subdivisions (So far as known) Hokwaits, in Ivanpah Valley. Kauyaichits, location unknown. Mokwats, at the Kingston Mountains. Moviats, on Cottonwood Island. Shivawach or Shivawats, in the Chemehuevi Valley, perhaps only the name of a locality. Tumpisagavatsits or Timpashauwagotsits, in the Providence Mountains. Yagats, at Amargosa. Population.- Kroeber (1925) estimates between 500 and 800 Chemehuevi in ancient times. In 1910, 355 were returned of whom 260 were in California. Chetco. The Chetco extended slightly across into northern California from its home in Oregon (q. v.). Chilula. An American rendering of Yurok Tsulu-la, "people of Tsulu," the Bald Hills. Connections.- With the Hupa and Whilkut, the Chilula formed one group of the Athapascan linguistic stock. Location.- On or near lower Redwood Creek from near the inland edge of the heavy redwood belt to a few miles above Minor Creek. Villages The following are known and are given in order beginning with the one farthest down Redwood Creek: Howunakut, Noleding, Tlochime, Kingkyolai, Kingyukyomunga, Yisining'aikut, Tsinsilading, Tondinunding, Yinukanomitseding, Hontetlme, Tlocheke, Hlichuhwinauhwding, Kailuhwtahding, Kailuhwchengetlding, Sikingchwungmitahding, Kinahontahding, Misme, Kahustnhding. Population.- Kroeber (1925) estimates 500 to 600 Chilula before White contact. Now reduced to two or three families and a few persons incorporated with the Hupa. (See Bear River Indians.) Chimariko. From the native word chimar, "person." Also called: Kwoshonipu, name probably given them by the Shasta of Salmon River. Meyemma, given by Gihhs (1853). Connections.- Originally considered a distinct stock, the Chimariko are now classed in the Hokan linguistic family. Location.- On the canyon of Trinity River from about the mouth of New River to Canyon Creek. Villages Chalitasum, at the junction of New and Trinity Rivers. Chichanma, at Taylor Flat. Himeakudji, at Big Creek. Hodinakchohoda, at Cedar Flat. Maidjasore, at Thomas. Paktunadji, at Patterson. Tsudamdadji, at Burnt Ranch. Population.- The Chimariko were estimated by Kroeber (1925) at 250 in 1849; only a few mixed-bloods are now living. Chumash. A term originally applied to the Santa Rosa islanders. Also called: Santa Barbara Indians, a popular name. Connections.- At first considered a distinct linguistic stock, the Chumash are now included in the larger Hokan family. Location.- The Chumash occupied the three northern islands of the Santa Barbara group, the coast from Malibu Canyon to Estero Bay, and extended inland to the range that divides the drainage of the great valley from the coast, except on the west where their frontier was the watershed between the Salinas and the Santa Maria and short coast streams, and on the east where some small fragments had spilled over into part of the most southerly drainage of the San Joaquin-Kern system. Subdivisions Barbareno Chumash, on the coast from Point Conception nearly to Ventura River. Cuyama Chumash, in the valley of Cuyama River and the upper valley of the Santa Maria River. Emigdiano Chumash, beyond the coast range in the southernmost extremity of the great valley of California. Island Chumash, on San Miguel, Santa Rosa, and Santa Cruz Is- lands. Obispeho Chumash, on the coast from a point a little north of Santa Maria River to Salinan territory. Purisimeno Chumash, on the coast between the lands of the Obispeno and Barbareno divisions. Santa Ynez Chumash, inland along Santa Ynez River between the Barbareno and Cuyama divisions. Ventureno, on the coast from the Ventura River to the end of Chumash territory on the southeast and the drainage areas of Ventura River, Calleguas Creek, and most of that of Santa Clara River inland. Villages A'hwai (at Ojai). Ala-hulapun, at Santa Ynez Mission. Alka'ash, on the coast west of Santa Barbara. Alpincha, at Santa Barbara. Alwatalam, in the Goleta marsh. Amolomol, on the coast close to Santa Barbara. Amuwu, at Mission Purisima near Santa Ynez River. Anawupu, on a small stream emptying into the Pacific at Gaviota. Antap, near Ventura. Awawilashmu, near the Canada del Refugio. Chikachkach, at the mouth of Ventura River. Ch'oloshush, at the west end of Santa Cruz Island. Ch'ushu, on the north shore of Santa Cruz Island. Chwayuk, on the coast west of Ventura River. Elhelel, on the coast east of Santa Barbara. Elhiman, in the Goleta marsh. Hahas, on the north shore of Santa Cruz Island toward the east end. Hanawani, on the south shore of Santa Cruz Island. Halam, on Jalama Creek near the coast. Hanaya, northeast of Santa Barbara Mission. Heliok, on the coast southwest of Goleta. Helo, on the coast south of Goleta. Hipuk, inland on Maliba Creek. Honmoyanshu, near Ventura. Ho'ya or Huya, said to have been the name of a village on Santa Cruz Island. Humkaka, at Point Conception. Ishwa, at the mouth of Santa Clara River. Kachyoyukuch, near Ventura. K'ahu, on the coast between Cafiada del Refugio and Dos Pueblos Canyon. Kamupau, inland on San Emigdio Creek. Kashiwe, inland northeast of Santa Susana. Kashwa, northeast of Santa Barbara Mission Kasil, at the mouth of Canada del Refugio. Katstayut, on the coast west of Gaviota. Kayewush, inland on Calleguas Creek. Kichuwun, on the northeast coast of Santa Rosa Island. Kinapuich', near Ventura. Kohso, a short distance inland from the mouth of Ventura River. Kolok, at Carpinteria. K'shiuk'shiu, on the northeast coast of Santa Rosa Island. Kulalama, near Santa Barbara Mission. Kuyamu, near the mouth of Dos Pueblos Canyon. L'aka'amu, on the north coast of Santa Cruz Island near its west end. L'alalu, on the north coast of Santa Cruz Island. Lapau, on the Canada de los Uvas north of Old Fort Tejon. Liyam, on the south shore of Santa Cruz Island. Lu'upsh, near the east end of Santa Cruz Island. Mahalal, at San Cayetano. Mah'auh, inland near the middle course of Calleguas Creek. Maliwu, at the mouth of Maliba Creek. Mashch'al, on the east coast of Santa Cruz Island. Masuwuk, near Los Alamos. Ma'tilha, inland on Matilija Creek. Mich'iyu, on the coast east of Gaviota. Mikiw, at the mouth of Dos Pueblos Canyon. Mishopshno (near Carpinteria), near Santa Ynez River above Cachuma Creek. Mishtapalwa, near Ventura. Mismatuk, in Arroyo Burro near Santa Barbara Mission. Mispu, on the coast southwest of Santa Barbara. Mitskanakan, at Ventura Mission. Nupu, at Santa Paula. Nushum, on the coast between Ventura Mission and Carpinteria. Muwu, on the coast near the mouth of Calleguas Creek. Nahayalewa, on the headwaters of Santa Ynez River northwest of Chismahoo Mountain. Nawani, on the west coast of Santa Rosa Island. Niakla, on the north coast of Santa Rosa Island. Nila'lhuyu, on the south coast of Santa Rosa Island. Nimalala, on the north coast of Santa Cruz Island. Numkulkul, on the north coast and near the west end of Santa Rosa Island. Onohwi, on Nojoqui Creek, a branch of Santa Ynez River. Onomyo, at Gaviota. Sahpilil, on the coast southwest of Goleta. Salnobalkaisikw, a short distance west of Ojai. Sati'k'oi, at Saticoy on Santa Ciara River. Sek'spe, at Sespe. Shalawa, on the coast north of Santa Barbara. Shawa, on the west coast of Santa Cruz Island. Shimiyi, at Simi on Calleguas Creek. Shisholop, on the coast near Point Conception. Shishoiop, a second town of the name at Ventura Mission. Shishwashkui, on the coast south of Rincon Creek. Shtekolo, at the Cienega near Santa Barbara Mission. Shuku, at the mouth of Rincon Creek. Shushuchi, on the coast west of the Canada del Refugio. Shuwalashu, on the coast at the lower end of Sycamore Canyon. Siliwihi, on the north coast of Santa Rosa Island. Simo'mo, at the mouth of Calleguas Creek. Sis'a, on Sisar Canyon northwest of Santa Paula. Sitoptopo, inland northeast of Ojai. Siuhtun, at Santa Barbara Mission. Skonon, in Arroyo Burro near Santa Barbara Mission. S'ohmus, inland on the middle course of Calleguas Creek. Swahul, at the eastern point of Santa Cruz Island. Swetete, on the coast east of Santa Barbara. Ta'apu, inland north of Santa Susana. Takuyo, inland on Tecuya Creek, northwest of old Fort Tejon. Tashlipunau, inland on San Emigdio Creek north of San Emigdio Mountains. Teneknes, at Carpinteria. Tenenam, near Santa Barbara Mission. Tokin, near Santa Barbara Mission. Tuhmu'l, on the coast east of Gaviota. Upop, near Point Conception. Ushtahash, inland northwest of Santa Barbara Mission. Wene'me, at Hueneme. Wichachet, on the coast east of the mouth of Calleguas Creek. Cabrillo's sixteenth century relation gives the names of a number of villages, part of which Kroeber (1925) has been able to identify, at least with a fair degree of probability, while some are evidently duplications. Eliminating the duplications, we have the following additional village names: Aguin. Naebuc (or Anacbuc). Anacot. Nocos. Asimu. Olesino. Bis. Opia (or Opistopia). Caacat (or Cancae), though Potoltuc (Paltate, Partocac, or the last may be a synonym Paltocac). for Ciucut (Siuhtun). Quiman. Gua (or Quannegua). Sopono (Misesopono, or Garomisopoa.) Maquinanoa. Xotococ. Misinagua. Yutum. Population.- The number of Chumash has been estimated by Kroeber (1925) at 10,000 in 1770; at the present time a mere remnant is left, given as 38 in the census of 1910 and 14 in that of 1930. Costanoan. From Spanish Costanos, "coast people." Also called: Mutsun, Gatschet extended this term over these and other peoples. Connections.- The Costanoan formed one division of the Penutian linguistic stock. Location.- On the coast between San Francisco Bay and Point Sur, and inland probably to the Mount Diablo Range. Subdivisions Monterey Costanoan, from Pnjaro River to Point Sur and the lower courses of the latter stream and Salinas and Carmel Rivers. Saclan Costanoan, between San Francisco and San Pablo Bays. San Francisco Costanoan, between San Francisco Bay and the Pacific Ocean. San Juan Bautists Costanoan, along San Benito River and San Felipe Creek. Santa Clara Costanonn, on Coyote and Caiaveras Creeks. Santa Cruz Costanoan, on the coast between Pescadero and Pajaro River. Soledad Costanoan, on the middle course of Salinas River. Villages As far as Kroeber has been able to locate them, they are as follows: Ahala-n, south of Martinez. Altah-mo, on the west shore of San Francisco Bag. Aulin-tak, on the coast close to Santa Cruz Mission. Ausai-ma, on San Felipe Creek. Awas-te, near San Francisco. Chatu-mu, near Santa Cruz Mission. Hotochtak, just nest of the preceding. Huchiu-n, northeast of Oakland. Huirne-n, near San Pablo. Huris-tak, at the junction of San Felipe and San Benito Creeks. Imuna-kan, northeast of Salinas. Kakon-ta-ruk, near Point Sur. Kalinta-ruk, at the mouth of Salinas River. Kino-te, inland south of San Francisco Bay. Matala-n, inland south of San Francisco Bay. Mus-tuk, inland east of the mouth of Salinas River. Mutsu-n, at San Juan Bautista Mission. Olho-n, south of San Francisco. Orbiso-n, at San Jose Mission. Paisi-n, on San Benito River. Posol-mi, near the south end of San Francisco Bay. Romano-n, south of San Francisco. Rumse-n, on Carmel River. Saho-n, on Salinas River south of Salinas. Sakla-n, south of Martinez. Salso-n, at San Mateo. Sirhin-ta-ruk, on the coast north of Point Sur. Sokel, at Aptos, east of Santa Cruz. Tamie-n, on Coyote River near Santa Clara Mission. Tsmo-tk, near Monterey. Tulo-mo, south of San Francisco. Ulis-tak, on Coyote River north of Santa Clara Mission. Urehure, near the west shore of San Francisco Bay. Wscharo-n, near Soledad Mission on Salinas River. Werwerse-n, inland east of San Jose. Wolwo-n, inland northwest of Mt. Diablo. Population.- Kroeber (1925) estimates that there were about 7,000 Costanoan in 1770. Today there are only a few mixed-blood descendants remaining. The census of 1910 returned 10; that of 1930, none. Cupeno. From Kupa, the name of one of their towns. Connections.- The Cupeno spoke a dialect belonging to the Luiseno-Cahuilla branch of the Shoshonean division of the Uto-Aztecan linguistic stock. Location.- A mountainous district on the headwaters of San Luis Rey River, not over 10 by 5 miles in extent. Villages Kupa, near the famous hot springs of Warner's Ranch. Wilakal, at San Ysidro. Population Kroeber (1926) estimates not over 500 in 1770, and in 1910, 150. (See Alliklik.) Dakubetede. An Athapascan tribe of Oregon which extended slightly beyond the northern border of California. (See Oregon.) Diegueno. Derived from the name of the Mission of San Diego. Connections.- The Diegueno belonged to the Central division of the Yuman linguistic groups being most closely connected with the Kamia and Kiliwa, but that is reckoned a branch of the Hokan stock. Subdivisions Northern Diegueho, in the eastern part of San Diego County and extending an indefinite distance southward into the Mexican State of Baja California. Southern Diegueno, in the modern districts of Campo, La Posta, Manzanita, Guyspipe, and La Laguna, and some territory in Baja California. Villages Aha-hakaik, at La Lasyuna. Akmukatikatl, inland on the San Dieguito River. Ahta ("cane") or Hapawu, at Carrizo. Ahwat, in Baja California. Amai'-tu, at La Posta. Amat-kwa'-ahwat, on the stream above Campo. Amotaretuwe, inland between San Diego and Sweetwater Rivers. Anyaha, at the headwaters of San Diego River. Atlkwanen, on the head of San Dieguito River. Awaskal, location unknown. Ekwiamak, on the head of Sweetwater River. Emitl-kwatai, at Campo. Ewiapaip, at Guyapipe. Hakum in or near Jacumba Pass. Hakutl, south of San Marcos Creek. Hamacha, on the middle course of Sweetwater River. Hamul, at the head of Otay River. Hanwi, location uncertain. Hapai, south of San Dieguito River. Hasasei, location uncertain. Hasumel, location uncertain. Hata'am location uncertain. Hawai, location uncertain. Hawi, at Vallecitos. Inomasi, location uncertain. Inyahkai, at La Laguna. Kamachal, location uncertain. Kohwnt, location uncertain. Kokwitl, location uncertain. Kosmit, at the head of San Diego River. Kosoi, at San Diego. Kwalhwut, location uncertain Kulaumai, on the coast near the mouth of San Dieguito River. Kwatai, at the head of Cottonwood Creek. Maktati, location uncertain. Maramoido, location uncertain. Mat-ahwat-is, location uncertain Matamo, location uncertain. Met-hwai, southwest of San Ysidro Mountain. Meti, location uncertain. Mitltekwanak, on San Felipe Creek and the head of San Dieguito River. Netlmol, location uncertain. Nipawai, on lower San Diego River. Otai, about Otai Mountain. Pamo, between the heads of San Dieguito and San Diego Rivers. Paulpa, at the north end of San Diego Bay. Pauwai, inland between San Dieguito and San Diego Rivers. Pokol, location uncertain. Pu-shuyi, inland east of San Diego. Sekwan, on the middle course of Sweetwater River. Setmunumin, southeast of Mesa Grande. Shana, location uncertain. Sinyau-pichkara, on the middle course of San Dieguito River. Sinyau-tehwir, at the head of San Diego River. Sinyeweche, northeast of San Diego. Suapa, location uncertain. Tapanke, location uncertain. Tawi, west of San Ysidro Mountain. Tlokwih, near North Peak. Totakamalam, at Point Loms. Tukumak, at Mesa Crande. Wernura, location uncertain. Witlimak, on a head branch of San Diego River. Population.- Kroeber (1925) estimates 3,000 Diegueno and Kamia together in 1770; in 1925, between 700 and 800. The census of 1930 gave 322. Esselen. Probably the name of a village; significance unknown. Connections.- Originally given the status of a distinct stock, the Esselen are now placed in the Hokan linguistic family, their affinities being rather with the Yuman division, to the south, and with the Pomo, Yana, and other groups to the north than with their closer neighbors of this stock, the Salinan and Chumash tribes. Location.- On the upper course of Carmol River, Sur River, and the coast from Point Lopez almost to Point Sur. Villages Echilat, 12 miles southeast of Mission Carmelo. Ekheya, in the mountains. Ensen, at Buena Esperanza. Ichenta, at San Jose. Pachhepes, near the next. Xaseum, in the sierra. Population.- Kroeber (1925) estimates 500 Esselen in 1770; they are now extinct. Fernandeno. So-called from San Fernando, the name of one of the two Franciscan missions in Los Angeles County. Connections.- The nearest relatives of the Fernandeno were the Gabrielino and both belonged to the California section of the Shoshonean Division of the Uto-Aztecan linguistic stock. Location.- In that part of the valley of Los Angeles River above Los Angeles. Villages Hahamo, north of Los Angeles. Kawe, northwest of Los Angeles. Mau, north of Los Angeles. Pasek, at San Francisco Mission. Population.- Kroeber (1925) estimates that, with the Gabrielino and Nicolefio, the Fernandefio numbered 5,000 in 1770; they are now practically extinct. Gabrielino. Derived from San Gabriel, one of the two missions in Los Angeles County. Also called: Kizh, reported by Gatschct (1876); Hale (1846) has Kij. Playsanos, a name which seems to be applied to the California Shoshoneans living in the lowlands, especially near the coast in the region of Los Angeles. Tobikhars, said to mean "settlers," but probably from Tobohar, the mythical first man. Tumangamalum, Luiseno name. Connections.- The nearest connections of the Gabrielino were the Fernandeno; both belonged to the California branch of the Shoshonean Division of the Uto-Aztecan stock. Location.- In the drainage area of the San Gabriel River, the territory about Los Angeles, and all the country southward to include half of Orange County, also Santa Catalina Island and probably San Clemente. Villages Ahau, near Los Angeles River north of Long Beach. Akura, near San Gabriel Mission. Akura-nga, at La Presa. Aleupki-nga, at Saints Anita. Apachia, just east of Los Angeles. Asuksa, west of Azusa. Awi, between Pomona and the San Gabriel River. Chokish-nga, at Jaboncria. Chowi, near San Pedro. Engva, near Redondo. Hout, south of San Gabriel Mission. Hutuk, inland on Santa Ana River. Isnntka-nga, at Mission Vieja. Kinki or Kinkipar, on San Clemente Island. Kukamo, southwest of Gucamonga Peak. Lukup, near the mouth of Santa Ana River. Masau, on the coast near San Pedro. Moyo, on the coast south of the mouth of Santa Ana River. Nakau-nga, at Carpenter's. Pahav, southeast of Corona. Pasino, southeast of Pomona. Pimoka-nga, at Rancho de los Ybarras. Pimu or Pipimar, on Santa Catalina Island. Pubu, inland on San Gabriel River, east of Long Beach. Saan, on the coast south of Santa Monica. Sehat, inland near the middle course of San Gabriel River. Shua, near Long Beach. Siba, at San Gabriel Mission. Sisitkan-nga, at Pear Orchard. Sona-nga, at White's. Sua-nga, near Long Beach. Tibaha, north of Long Beach between Los Angeles and San Gabriel Rivers. Toibi, at Pomona. Wenot, at Los Angeles. Population.- Kroeber (1925) estimates 5,000 Gabrielino, Fernandeno, and Nicoleno in 1770; they are now practically extinct. Halchidhoma. On the middle Colorado. (See Arizona.) Huchnom. The name applied to this tribe by the Yuki and apparently by themselves; said to signify "mountain people." Also called: Redwoods, a popular name. Ta'-tu, by the Pomo of Potter Valley. Connection.- The Huchnom belonged to the Yukian linguistic stock, though resembling the Pomo somewhat more closely in culture. Location.- In the valley of South Eel River from Hullville nearly to its mouth, together with the valley of its affluent, Tomki Creek, and the lower course of the stream known as Deep or Outlet Creek. Villages Ba'awel, name in Pomo; on South Eel River a couple of miles from Ukumna (q. v.). Hatupoka, on Tomki Creek below the village of Pukemul. Komohmemut-knyuk, on South Eel River between Lilko'ol and Mumemel. Lilko'ol, on South Eel River between Ba'awel and the preceding. Mot, on South Eel River between Yek and Mupan. Mot-kuyuk, on South Eel River at the mouth of Tomki Creek. Mumemel, on South Eel River just below the forks at Hullville. Mupan, on South Eel River between Mot and Mot-kuyuk. Nonhohou, on South Eel River between Shipomul and Yek. Pukemul, on Tomki Creek above the village of Hatupoka. Shipomul, on South Eel River at the mouth of Outlet Creek. Ukumna, near the head of the eastern source of Russian River. Yek, on South Eel River between Nonhohou and Mot. There is one village of uncertain name and possibly Yuki on the headwaters of the South Fork of Eel River. Population.- The Huchnom were estimated at 500 in 1770 by Kroeber (1926); the census of 1910 returned 7 full-bloods and 8 half- breeds. (See Yuki.) Hupa. Derived from the Yurok name of the valley, Hupo. Also called: Cha'parahihu, Shasta name. Hich'hu, Chimariko name. Kishakevira, Karok name. Nabiltse, given by Gibbs (1877) and translated "man." Natinnoh-hoi, own name, after Natinnoh, "Trinity River." Num-ee-muss, Yurok name. Trinity Indians, translation of their own name. Connections.- The Hupa belonged to the Athapascan linguistic stock, forming one closely knit linguistic group with the Chilula and Whilkut. Location.- On the middle course of the Trinity River and its branches, particularly a beautiful stretch of 8 miles known as Hupa (or Hoopa) Valley, and on New River. C. H. Merriam (1926) treats these latter as a distinct tribe of Shastan affinities, but J. P. Harrington (personal information) states that they were Hupa. Villages Aheltah, name perhaps Yurok; said to be in the upper part of Hupa territory. Cheindekotding, on the west bank of Trinity River between Kinchuhwikut and Miskut. Dakis-hankut, on the west bank of Trinity River between Honsading and Kinchuhwikut. Djishtangading, on the east bank of Trinity River between Howunkut and Haslinding. Haslinding, in the "Sugar Bowl" above Hupa Valley. Honsading, the village farthest down Trinity River and on the east bank. Howunkut, on the west side of Trinity River between Medilding and Djishtangading. Kachwunding, on Trinity River near the mouth of Willow Creek. 'Kek-kah'-na-tung, at Martha Ziegler's place on the lower part of New River. Kinchuhwikut, on the east bank of Trinity River between Dakishankut and Cheindekotding. Ki-ooeh-wet-tung, at Sally Noble's place on New River, about a quarter of a mile below the mouth of Panther Creek. Klo-nes-tung, at the present site of Quinby on New River. Medilding, on the east bank of Trinity River between Totltsnsding and Howunkut. Me-yemma, possibly belonging to this tribe, but more likely Chimariko, on Trinity River just below the mouth of New River. Mingkutme, on Trinity River near the mouth of Willow Creek. Miskut, on the east bank of Trinity River between Cheindekotding and Takimitlding. Sehachpaya, the name perhaps Yurok; said to have been in the upper part, of the Hupa territory. Sokeakeit, ibid. Takimitlding, on the east bank of Trinity River between Miskut and Tsewenalding. Tashuanta, the name perhaps Yurok; said to have been in the upper part of the Hupa territory. Tlelding, at the forks of the Trinity River. Tl'okame, a subsidiary settlement of the preceding, 5 miles up the South Fork of Trinity River. Totltsasding, on the west bank of Trinity River between the preceding and Medilding. Tsa-nah'-ning-ah'-tung, on the bar or flat at New River Forks, at the junction of East Fork with main New River. Tsewenalding, on the east bank of Trinity River between Takimitlding and Totltsasding. Waugullewatl, the name perhaps Yurok; said to have been in the upper part of the Hupa territory. Population.- Kroeber (1925) places the number of Hupa at 1,000 in 1770; the census of 1910 returned 500. In 1937 the United States Office of Indian Affairs returned 575. (See Bear River Indians.) Connection in which they have become noted.- A village in Humboldt County, preserves the name of the Hupa. Juaneno. Derived from the mission of San Juan Capistrano. Also called: Gaitchim, given by Gatschet (1876). Netela, given by Hale (1846), meaning "my language." Connections.- The Juaneno belonged to the Shoshonean branch of the Uto-Aztecan linguistic stock, their speech being a variant of Luiseno. Location.- From the Pacific Ocean to the west of the southern continuation of the Sierra Santa Ana. Southward, toward the Luiseno, the boundary ran between the San Onofre and Las Pulgas; on the north, toward the Gabrielino, it is said to have followed Alisos Creek. Villages Ahachmai, on the lower course of San Juan Creek below the mission of San Juan Capistrano. Alona, north of the Mission of San Juan Capistrano. Hechmai, near the coast south of Arroyo San Onofre. Humair, on the middle course of San Juan Creek. Palasakeuna, at the head of Arroyo San Mateo. Panhe, near the mouth of Arroyo San Mateo. Piniva, on San Juan Creek above San Juan Capistrano. Pu-tuid-em, near the coast between San Juan and Aliso Creeks. Population.- The Juaneho were estimated by Kroeber (1925) at 1,000 in 1770; the census of 1910 returned 16. (See Alliklik.) Kamia. From their own term Kamiyai or Knmiyahi, which they applied also to the Diegueho. Also called: Comeya, common synonym used by Bartlett in 1854 and adopted in Handbook of American Indians (Hodge, 1907, 1910). I'-um O'-otam, Pima name for Kamia and Diegueho. New River Indians, from their location. Quemaya, so called by Garces in 1775-76. Tipai, own name, also meaning "person." Yum, same as I'-um. Connections.- They belonged to the Yuman stock of Powell now considered a subdivision of the Hokan family, their closest affinities being with the eastern Diegueno who were sometimes considered one tribe with themselves. Location.- In Imperial Valley, and on the banks of the sloughs connecting it with Colorado River. (See also Mexico.) Villages There were no true villages. Population.- Gifford (1931) says there could not have been more than a few hundred Kamia in aboriginal times. Heintzelman (1857) gives 254 under the chief Fernando in 1849. (See Diegueno.) Connection in which they have become noted.- Whatever notoriety the Kamia, an inconspicuous tribe, has attained is due entirely to the fame of their valley home. Karok. Properly Karuk, signifying in their own language "upstream," but not used as a tribal designation. Ara, given by Gatschet (1890), signifying "man." Ivap'i, Shasta name. Orleans Indians, a name sometimes locally used, especially downstream from the Karok territory. Petsikla, Yurok name, meaning "upstream." Connections.- Originally considered an independent stock, the Karok are now schooled in a much larger linguistic connection known as the Hokan family. Their closest relatives are the Chimariko and Shasta. Location.- On the middle course of Klamath River between the Yurok and Shasta and all of the branches of the Klamath except the upper course of Salmon River. Subdivisions The Karok were divided into the Upper Karok above Independence Creek and the Lower Klamath below that stream. Villages Aftaram, on Klamath River, probably above the mouth of Salmon River. Ahoeptimi, 10 to 12 miles above Ashipak (q. v.). Akoteli, a village or portion of a village near the mouth of Salmon River. Amaikiara, on the west side of Klamath River below a fall about a mile below the mouth of Salmon River. Aranimokw, Yurok name of a Lower Karok town on Klamath River. Ashanamkarak, at the fall just mentioned, and on the east side of Klamath River. Ashipak, on Klamath River a few miles above the mouth of Salmon River. Asisufunuk, at Happy Camp, at the mouth of Indian Creek. Aukni, Shasta name for a village above Happy Camp. Ayis, some distance above the mouth of Salmon River. Chamikininich, on the south or east bank of Klamath River in the Orleans district. Chiniki, on Klamath River below Camp Creek. Chinits, at Sims Ferry on Klamath River. Inam, at the mouth of Clear Creek. Inoftak, a village or section of a village near the mouth of Salmon River. Ishipishi, opposite Katimin, the Karok center of the world just above the mouth of Salmon River. Iwatak, a village or section of a village near the mouth of Salmon River. Katipiara, on the east bank of Klamath River above the flat at Orleans. Kaus, a village or section of a village near the mouth of Salmon River. Kumawer, Yurok name of a village above the mouth of Salmon River. Nupatsu, Shasta name of a village below Happy Camp. Oler, Yurok name of a village below Camp Creek. Panamenik, on the flat at Orleans. Sanipa, on Klamath River below Camp Creek. Segoashkwu, Yurok name of a village below Camp Creek. Shavuram or Sahwuram, on Klamath River above Tu'i. Tachanak, on the west bank of Klamath River at the mouth of Camp Creek. Ti, 10 to 12 miles above Ashipak. Tishrawa, a village or section of a village near the mouth of Salmon River. Tsofkaram or Tasofkaram, at Pearch on Klamath River. Tu'i, Yurok name of a village on Klamath River below Camp Creek. Unharik, a village or section of a village near the mouth of Salmon River. Ussini, Shasta name of a village at the mouth of China Creek. Wetsitsiko or Witsigo, Yurok name of a village in the Orleans district. Wopum, the Karok village farthest down Klamath River opposite Red Cap Creek. Yutuirup, a neighbor or suburb of Ishipishi (q. v.). Population.- The number of Karok were estimated by Kroeber (1925) at about 1,500 in 1770. In 1905, 576 were returned, and in 1910, 775, but the latter figure is probably too high, though the census of 1930 returned 755. Kato. A Pomo place name meaning "lake." Also called: Batem-da-hai-ee, given by Gibbs (1853). Kai Po-mo, given by Powers (1877). Laleshiknom, Yuki name. Tlokeang, own name. Connections.- The Kato belonged to the Athapascan linguistic stock, and spoke a dialect peculiar to themselves. Location.- On the uppermost course of the South Fork of Eel River. Villages There are said to have been nearly 50 of these, probably an overestimate, but none of their names are known. Population.- Kroeber (1925) estimates 500 Kato in 1770; about 50 persons, mostly full-bloods are still reckoned as Kato. (See Bear River Indians.) Kawaiisu. So-called by the Yokuts; the signification of the word is unknown. Connections.- The Kawaiisu belonged to the Shoshonean branch of the Uto-Aztecan linguistic family, and were a more immediate offshoot, apparently, of the Chemehuevi. Location.- In the Tehachapi Mountains. Population.- Kroeber (1925) estimates an aboriginal Kawaiisu population of perhaps 500 and a present (1925) population of nearly 150 . (See Alliklik.) Kitanemuk. Perhaps from the stem ki, "house,"; other synonyms are Kikitanum, and Kikitamkar. Connections.- The Kitanemuk belonged to the Shoshonean division of the Uto-Aztecan linguistic stock and to a subgroup which included also the Alliklik, Vanyumc and Serrano. Location.- On upper Tejon and Paso Creeks, the streams on the rear side of the Tehachapi Mountains in the same vicinity and the small creeks draining the northern slope of the Liebre and Sawmill Range, with Antelope Valley and the western-most end of the Mohave Desert. Villages The present principal Kitanemuk village is called Nakwalki-ve, and is situated where Tejon Creek breaks out of the hills. (Other names given do not seem unquestionably those of villages). Population.- Kroeber (1925) estimates that in 1770 there were 3,500 Serrano, Vanyume, Kitanemuk, and Alliklik, and that these were represented by about 150 in 1910. (See Alliklik.) Konomihu. Their own name, significance unknown. Connections.- The Konomihu was the most divergent of the Shastan group of tribes of the Hokan linguistic family. Location.- Territory centering about the forks of Saknon River. Villages The principal Konomihu village, called, apparently by the Karok, Shamnam, was between the forks of Salmon River in Siskiyou County, on the right ride of the south branch just above the junction. Population.- Together with the Chimariko, New River Shasta, and Okwanuchu, the Konomihu are estimated by Kroeber (1925) to have numbered about 1,000 in 1770; they are not now enumerated separately from the Shasta, of whom 844 were returned in 1930. Koso. Significance unknown. Ke-at, given by Gatschet (Wheeler Survey, p. 411, 1879). Panamint, name more often used. Connections.- The Koso formed the western-most extension of the Shoshoni-Comanche branch of the Shoshonean division of the Uto-Aztecan linguistic stock. Location.- On a barren tract of land in the southeastern part of the State between the Sierra and the State of Nevada, and including Owens Lake, the Coso, Argus, Panamint, and Funeral Mountains and the intervening valleys. Population.- Kroeber (1925) estimates an aboriginal Koso population of not over 500; since 1880 they have been placed at about 100 to 150. Lassik. The name derived from that of a chief. Connections.- The Lassik belonged to the Athapascan linguistic family and were connected very closely with the Nongatl, who lay just to the north. Location.- On a stretch of Eel River, from a few miles above the mouth of the South Fork not quite to Kekawaka Creek; also Dobbins Creek, an eastern affluent of the main stream, and Soldier Basin at the head of the North Fork; to the east they extended to the head of Mad River. Population.- Kroeber (1925) estimates that in 1770, along with the Nongatl and Sinkyone, the Lassik numbered 2,000, and in 1910, 100. (See Alliklik.) Luiseno. From the name of the Mission of San Luis Rey de Francia. Also called: Ghecham or Khecham, from the native name of San Luis Rey Mission. Connections.- The Luiseno belonged to the Shoshonean division of the Uto-Aztecan linguistic family. Location.- In the southwest part of the state from the coast toward but wholly west of the divide that extends south from Mount San Jacinto; bounded northward by the cognate Juaneno, Gabrielino, and Serrano and south by the Diegueno. Villages Ahuyn, near the upper course of San Luis Rey River. Akipa, near Kahpa. Alapi, south of the middle course of the San Luis Rey River. Awa', on a head branch of Santa Margarita River. Hurumpa, west of Riverside. Huyulkum, on the upper course of San Luis Rey River. Ikaimai, near San Luis Rey Mission. Kahpa, on the middle course of San Luis Rey River. Katukto, between Santa Margarita and San Luis Rey Rivers, north of San Luis Rey. Keish, south of San Luis Rey Mission. Keweyu, on the upper course of San Luis Rey River. Kolo, near the upper course of San Luis Rey River. Kuka, on the upper course of San Luis Rey River. Kwalam, on the loner course of San Luis Rey River. Malamai, northeast of Pala. Meha, on Santa Margarita River northwest of Temecula. Mehcl-om-pom-pauvo, near Escondido. Ngorivo, near the headwaters of San Luis Rey River. Pa'auw, near Ta'i. Paiahche, on Elsinore Lake. Pala, at Pala. Palamai, on the coast between Buena Vista and Agua Hedionda Creeks. Panakare, north of Escondido. Pashkwo, near the headwaters of San Luis Rey River. Paumo, east of Pala. Pu-chorivo, on the upper course of San Luis Rey River. Saumai, south of the middle course of San Luis Rey River. Shakishmai (Luiseno or Diegueno), on the boundary line between the two peoples. Shikapa, west of Escondido. Sovovo, east of San Jacinto. Taghanashpa, east of Pala. Takwi, at the head of Santa Margarita River. Takwishpo-shapila, near Palomar Mountain. Ta'i, close to Palomar Mountain. Tapomai, north of Katukto. Temeku, east of Temecula. Tomkav, west of I'ala. Ushmai. near the mouth of Santa Margarita River. Wahaumai, on San Luis Rey River above San Luis Rey. Wiawio, at the mouth of San Luis Rey River. Wissamai, east of San Luis Rey. Woshha, near the upper course of San Luis Rey River. Yami, near Huyulkum. Population.- Kroeber (1925) estimates 4,000 to be a liberally allowed maximum for the Luiseno in 1770. The United States Indian Office returned over 2,500 in 1856; 1,300 in 1870; 1,150 in 1885: and in recent returns, less than 500. (See Alliklik.) Maidu. A native term meaning "person." Also called: Wawah, Paiute name for all Sacramento River tribes. Connections.- Formerly considered an independent stock, the Maidu have now been placed in the Penutian linguistic family. Location. - In the drainage areas of the Feather and American Rivers. Subdivisions The Maidu are divided, mainly on dialectic grounds, into the Nishinam or Southern Maidu (holding the whole of the American drainage plus that of the Bear and Yuba Rivers), the Northeastern Maidu (on the upper reaches of the North and Middle Forks of Feather River), and the Northwestern Maidu (below the high Sierra, part in the foothills where the South, Middle, North, and West Branches of Feather River converge, and on upper Butte and Chico Creeks and part in the open Sacramento Valley along the lower courses of the same streams). Villages Southern Division: Bamo, southwest of Placerville. Bushamul, on Bear River below the foothills. Chapa, between the South and Middle Forks of American River. Chikimisi. on a branch of the North Fork of Cosumnes River. Chuemdu, on Bear River below the foothills. Ekele-pakan, west of Placerville. Helto, on an east branch of Feather River. Hembem, on the North Fork of American River. Homiting, on Bear River below the foothills. Honkut, on Feather River north of Marysville. Hoko, on Feather River below Marysville. Indnk, at Placerville. Intanto, on Bear River below the foothills. Ksluplo, on Bear River below the foothills. Kapaka, on Bear River below the foothills. Kolo-ma, on the South Fork of American River. Rulkumish, at Colfax. Kushna, on the South Fork of Yuba River. Lelikian, on Bear River below the foothills. Lidlipa, on Bear River below the foothills. Mimal, on Feather River just south of Marysville. Molma, at Auburn. Mulamchapa, on Bear River below the foothills. Okpa, on Feather River below Marysville. Ola, on the east bank of Sacramento River above the mouth of Feather River. Oncho-ma, south of Placerville. Opelto, on Bear River below the foothills. Opok, on the North Fork of Cosumnes River. Pakanchi, on Bear River below the foothills. Pan-pakan, on a south branch of Yuba River. Pitsokut, northwest of American River midway between Auburn and Sacramento. Pulakatu, on Bear River below the foothills. Pushuni, northeast of Sacramento. Seku-mni, on the lower course of American River. Shokum-mlepi, on Bear River below the foothills. Shutamul, on Bear River below the foothills. Sisum, on Feather River below Marysville. Siwim-pakan, inland between the Middle and South Forks of American River. Solakiyu, on Bear River below the foothills. Taisida, southeast of Marysville. Talak, on Bear River below the foothills. Tomeha, on the east side of Feather River above Marysville. Tonimbutuk, on Bear River below the foothills. Toto, on an east branch of Feather River. Tsekankan, at Grass Valley. Tumeli, on the South Fork of American River northeast of Placerville. Usto-ma, east of Crass Valley. Wapumni, near the middle course of Cosumnes River. Wokodot, on a south branch of Yuba River northeast of Grass Valley. Woliyu, on Bear River below the foothills. Yalisu-mni, on the lower course of the South Fork of American River. Yamakii, near the junction of the South Fork of American River with the main stream. Yikulme, on Feather River above the junction of Bear River. Yodok, at the junction of the South Fork of American River with the main stream. Yokolimdu, on Bear River below the foothills. Yukulu, on the lower course of the South Fork of American River. Yupu, close to Marysville. Northeastern Division: Hopnom-koyo, on a north branch of Indian Creek. Ko-tasi, north of the middle course of Indian Creek. Naknngkoyo, on the headwaters of the North Fork of Feather River. Oidoing-koyo, on the headwaters of the North Fork of Indian Creek. Silong-koyo, at Quincy. Tasi-koyo, on the middle course of Indian Creek. Yota-moto, on the middle course of Indian Greek. Northwestern Division: Bahyu, on a west branch of the North Fork of Feather River. Bauka, on the west side of Feather River below Oroville. Bayu, on the west side of Feather River below Oroville. Benkumkumi, inland between the Middle and North Forks of Feather River. Botoko, on the west bank of Feather River below Oroville. Eskini, on a branch of Sacramento River southeast of Chico. Hoholto, near the lower course of the Middle Fork of Feather River. Hokomo, near the lower course of the Middle Fork of Feather River. Halkalya, near the lower course of the Middle Fork of Feather River. Konkau, near the lower course of the North Fork of Feather River. Kulayapto, near the lower course of the Middle Fork of Feather River. Michopdo, southeast of Chico. Nim-sewi, northeast of Chico. Ololopa, west of Oroville. Otaki, northeast of Chico. Paki, north of Chico. Tadoiko, south of Chico. Taichida, on the west bank of Feather River below Oroville. Taikus, on a west branch of the North Fork of Feather River, near its lower course. Toto-ma, on the lower course of the North Fork of Feather River. Tsaktomo, at the junction of the Middle and South Forks of Feather River. Tsam-bahenom, near the lower course of the Middle Fork of Feather River. Tsuka, near the South Fork of Feather River. Tsulum-sewi, a considerable distance northeast of Chico. Yauku, northeast of Chico. Yuma, at Oroville. Yunu, east of Chico. Helto, Toto, Honkut, and Tomcha should perhaps be included in the last division instead of among the Nishinam. Inhabited sites not included among the above were Hoktem, Kiski, Kphes, Natoma, Tankum, Tsamnk, Wesnak, and Wili. The following list of Northwestern Maidu "districts" or "tribelet" was given to Dr. Kroeber by a Wintun half-breed, who had spent most of his life associated with the Chico Maidu: Shi'da-wi, between Sacramento River and lower Pine Creek. Mu'li, on the Sacramento between Pine and Chico Creeks. Ts'eno or Ch'e'no, on the west side of the river about opposite the mouth of Chico Creek. Su'`nusi, on the Sacramento from Chico Creek to the Llano Seco or Parrott grant about opposite Jacinto or a couple of miles above. Batsi', near Jacinto, on the west side, opposite and perhaps including the Llano Seco grant. Pi'nhuk, the principal settlement, at Rutte City, of a tribelet covering a considerable extent of country. Micho'pdo, from Dayton to Chico east of Little Chico Creek. O'da-wi, from Chico City water tank to the foothills and from Edgar slough to Sandy Gulch. E'sken, from Durham to the foothills and Butte Creek to Clear Creek. Shi'udu, from Clear Creek to Feather River and from near Oroville to past Liveoak. Ku'lu, east of Shi'udu from Feather River toward the foothills about as far as the Oroville branch of the Southern Pacific Railroad and from Oroville inclusive south not quite to Marysville. Yu'pu, from the Southern Pacific bridge over the Feather River north of Marysville to about 2 miles south of the city and from a short distance west of the Feather to the foothills (this was a Nishinam village). Dr. Kroeber (1925) attempts to reconstruct the names of the Nishinnm or Southern Mnidu tribelets as follows: Following downstream: Yupu (at mouth of Yuba into Feather River), Kochuk or (and) Yokol-Liman-Hokok, Wolok or Ola (at efflux of Feather into Sacramento), Leuchi, Wijuna, Totola or Nawean, Pujune (on American River just above its mouth), Sek or Sekumne, Kadema and perhaps others up American River, Sam (below Sacramento city). This is incomplete. Population.- Kroeber (1925) estimates that 9,000 Maidu about the year 1770 would be a liberal estimate; the census of 1910 returned 1,100, and that of 1930 only 93. Mattole. Perhaps from the name of a village. Also called: Tul'bush, Wailaki name, meaning "foreigners." Connections.- The Mattole constitute one of the primary divisions of those Indians of the Athapascan stock living in California. Location.- On Bear River and Mattole River drainages; also on a few miles of Eel River and its Van Dusen Fork immediately above the Wiyot. Population.- Kroeber (1925) estimates that there were 500 Mattole in 1770; the census of 1910 returned 34, including 10 full-bloods. (See Bear River Indians.) Miwok. The native word signifying "people." Connections.- Originally a distinct stock in the classificatory system of Powell, Miwok has now been made a subdivision of the Penutian linguistic family. Location.- The Miwok lived in three detached groups as follows: (1) The main body on the long western slope of the Sierra Nevada between Fresno and Cosumnes Rivers and in that part of the valley which is intersected by the winding arms of the deltas of the San Joaquin and the Sacramento; (2) the Coast Miwok from the Golden Gate north to Duncan's Point and eastward to Sonoma Creek; and (3) the Lake Miwok in the basin of Clear Lake, including the drainage of two small streams flowing into the lowest mile or two of Clear Lake, and the southern bank of Cache Creek, the lake outlet, for a short distance beyond. Subdivisions Apart from the natural groups indicated above, the following dialectic subdivisions may be made out: The Lake Miwok identical with the geographical group just described. The Bodega Miuok, about Bodega Bay in the coastal area. The Coast Miwok, occupying the rest of the coastal area. The Plains Miwok, in the deltas of the San Joaquin and Cosumnes Rivers. The Northern Miwok, in the upper valleys of Mokelumne and Calaveras Rivers. Central Miwok, in the upper valleys of the Stanislaus and Tuolumne. The Southern Miwok, along the headwaters of the Merced and Chowchilla and on Mariposa Creek. The Lake Miwok were furthermore subdivided into two, or possibly three, district or tribal groups: (1) about the present Lower Lake, (2) on the headwaters of Putah Creek, and perhaps (3) in Pope Valley. Villages Lake Miwok: Kado'i'-yomi-pukut, Cookman Ranch, toward Lower Lake. Kai-yomi-pukut, in Pope Valley at the limit of Miwok territory. Kala'u-yomi, in Coyote Valley. Kawi-yomi, a town reported by Barrett (1908 b) on north frontier of Miwok, perhaps originally Pomo. Kilinyo-ke, at Eaton Ranch in Coyote Valley. Ki'tsin-pukut, Gamble, in Coyote Valley. Laka'h-yomi, on Weldon's ranch a mile and a half from Middletown and on Putah Creek. La'lmak-pukut, at north end of Middletown. Ole'-yomi, on the Berry place in Coyote Valley on Putah Creek. Sha'lshal-pukut and Shanak-yomi-pukut, at Asbill in Coyote Valley. Tsitsa-pukut, according to Barrett (1908 b), a site at the north end of Miwok territory but believed by Kroeber's informants to have been occupied by Miwok only in late times. Tsok-yomi-pukut or Shokomi, 3 miles below the store or town of Pope Valley. Tsu'keliwa-pukut, "at the new Siegler swimming resort." Tu'bud or Tu'bul, on Asbill property toward Lower Lake. Tule'-yomi, 2-3 miles south of the American town of Lower Lake. Tumi'stumis-pukut, given by Barrett (1908 b). Wi'lok-yomi, near the present rancheria or reservation but may have been Wappo. Wodi'-laitepi, in Jerusalem Valley. Yawi'-yomi-pukut, above Tgu'keliwa-pukut in a canyon. Coast Miwok: Amayelle, on San Antonio Creek. Awachi, at the mouth of Estero Americano. Awani-wi, at San Rafael. Bauli-n, on Bounas Bay. Chokeche, near Novato. Echa-kolum, on Tomales Bay south of Marshall. Echa-tamai, at Nicasio. Etem, at Petaluma. Ewapalt, near Valley Ford. Ewu, north of San Rafael. Helspattai, on Bodega Bay. Hime-takala, on Bodega Bay. Ho-takala, on Bodega Bay. Huchi, at Sonoma. Kennekono, at Bodega Corners. Kotati, at Cotati. Likatiut, on Petaluma River north of Petaluma. Liwanelowa, at Sausalito. Lumen-takala, northeast of Cotati. Meleya, on San Antonio Creek southwest of Petaluma. Olema-loke, at Olema. Olompolli, northwest of Novato. Oye-yomi, near Freestone. Pakahuwe, near Freestone. Patawa-yomi, near Freestone. Payinecha, west of Cotati. Petaluma, east of Petaluma River and the present Petaluma. Pulya-lakum, on the ocean near the mouth of Salmon Creek. Puyuku, south of Ignacio. Sakloki, opposite Tomales Point. Shotokmo-cha, southeast of Ignacio. Shotomko-wi, on Tomales Bay near the mouth of San Antonio Creek. Susuli, northwest of Petaluma. Suwutenne, north of Bodega Corners. Tembiek, west of Sonoma. Tiwut-huya, on the coast outside of Bodega Bay. Tokau, on Bodega Bay. Tuchavelin, northwest of Petaluma. Tuli, northwest of Sonoma. Tulme, northwest of Petaluma. Uli-yomi, at the head of Estero Americano. Utnmia, near Tomales. Wotoki, on the south side of Petaluma River. Wugilwa, on Sonoma Creek. Valley Miwok: Plains Division: Chuyumkatat, on Cosumnes River. Hulpu-mni, on the east bank of Sacramento River below Sacramento. Lel-amni, on Mokelumne River. Lulimal, near Cosumnes River. Mayeman, on Cosumnes River. Mokel(-umni), on Mokelumne River. Mokos-umni, on Cosumnes River. Ochech-ak, on Jackson Creek. Sakayak-umni, on Mokelumne River. Sukididi, on Cosumnes River. Supu, on Cosumnes River. Tukui, on Cosumnes River. Umucha, near Cosumnes River. Yomit, on Cosumnes River. Yumhui, near Cosumnes River. Northern Division: Apautanrilu, between Mokelumne and Calaveras Rivers. Chakane-su, on Jackson Creek? Kechenu, at the head of Calaveras River. Heina, between Mokelumne River and the head of Calaveras River. Huta-su, at San Andreas. Kaitimu, at the hend of Calaveras River. Ketina, between Mokelumne and Calaveras Rivers. Kunusu, near Mokelumne River. Mona-su, on the headwaters of Calaveras River. Noma, near the South Fork of Cosumnes River. Omo, near the South Fork of Cosumnes River. Penken-su, inland south of Mokelumne River. Pola-su, near Jackson. Seweu-su, on Jackson Creek? Sopochi, between Mokelumne River and Jackson Greek. Tukupe-su, at Jackson. Tumuti, on the headwaters of Jackson Creek. Upusuni, on Mokelumne River. Yule, south of Cosumne River. Yuloni, on Jackson Creek. Central Division: Akankau-nchi, two towns of the name, (1) near Sonora, (2) a considerable distance to the southwest. Akawila, between a branch of Tuolumne River and Stanislaus River. Akutanuka, northwest of Stanislaus River. Alakani, east of San Andreas. Chakachi-no, southwest of Sonora. Hanguite, on the South Fork of Stanislaus River. Hechhechi, on the headwaters of Tuolumne River. Hochhochmeti, on Tuolumne River. Humata, on a branch of Calaveras River. Hunga, northeast of Sonora. Kapanina, southwest of Sonora. Katuka, on a branch of Calaveras River. Kawinucha, near the North fork of Stanislaus River. Kesa, a short distance east of Sonora. Kewe-no, on Stanislaus River. Kosoununo-nu, between Stanislaus River and San Andreas. Kotoplana, a short distance west of Sonora. Kulamu, on a branch of Tuolumne River. Kuluti, at Sonora. Loyowisa, near the junction of the Middle and South Forks of Stanislaus River. Newichu, between Stanislaus River and a head branch of Calaveras River. Olaniye, east of Sonora. Oloikoto, on Stanislaus River. Pangasema-nu, on a northern branch of Tuolumne River. Pasi-nu, on Tuolumne River southeast of Sonora. Pigliku (Miwok pronunciation of "Big Greek"), south of Tuolumne River. Pokto-no, a short distance west of Sonora. Pota, a short distance northwest of Sonora. Sala, just south of Pigliku. Sasamu, almost due east of San Andreas. Shulaputi, just southeast of the preceding. Siksike-no, south of Sonora near Tuolumne River. Singawu-nu, at the head of a branch of Tuolumne River. Sopka-su, southwest of Sonora between Stanislaus and Tuolumne Rivers. Suchu-numu, southwest of Sonora. Sukanola, southeast of Sonora. Sukwela, east of Sonora. Sutamasina, on the South Fork of Stanislaus River. Takema, on the Middle Fork of Stanislaus River. Telese-no, northeast of Sonora. Tel'ula, northeast of Sonora. Tipotoya, on Stanislaus River. Tulana-chi, on Stanislaus River. Tulsuna, between the South and Middle Forks of Stanislaus River. Tunuk-chi, northeast of Sonora. Tuyiwu-nu, on Stanislaus River. Waka-che, southwest of and near Sonora. Wokachet, on the South Fork of Stanislaus River. Wolanga-su, south of the junction between the South and Middle Forks of Stanislaus River. Wuyu, on Stanislaus River. Yungakatok, near the junction of the North and Middle Forks of Stanislaus River. Southern Division: Alaula-chi, on Merced River. Angisawepa, on Merced River. Awal, on Merced River. Awani, close to Yosemite. Hikena, on Merced River. Kakahula-chi, on Merced River. Kasumati, near Mariposa. Kitiwana, on Merced River. Kuyuka-chi, on Merced River. Nochu-chi, near Mariposa. Nowach, on the headwaters of Chowchilla River. Olwia, on the headwaters of Chowchilla River. Owelinhatihu, on Merced River. Palachan, on a southern branch of Merced River. Sayangasi, between the middle courses of Merced and Tuolumne Rivers. Siso-chi, on Merced River. Sope-nchi, on a northern branch of Merced River. Sotpok, on a southern branch of Merced River. Wasema, near the head of Fresno River. Wehilto, on the upper waters of Fresno River. Wilito, on Merced River. Yawoka-chi, on Merced River. Many other village names have been recorded, but the above list contains all those which are well authenticated independent settlements. Population.- Kroeber (1925) estimates that in 1770 there were about 500 Lake Miwok 1,500 Coast Miwok, and 9,000 Plains and Sierra Miwok, bringing the total to 11,000. The census of 1910 returned 670, but Kroeber estimates about 700 of the Plains and Sierra Miwok alone. The census of 1930 returned 491. Modoc. This tribe extended into the northern part of the State. (See Oregon.) Mohave. The Mohave occupied some territory in the neighborhood of the Colorado River. (See Arizona.) Nicoleno. From San Nicolas, the most eastward of the Santa Barbara Islands. Connections.- They belonged to the Shoshoncan Division of the Uto-Aztecan linguistic stock, but their more immediate affiliations are uncertain. Location.- on the island above mentioned. Population.- Kroeber (1925) gives an estimate of their population in conjunction with the Gabrielino and Fernandeno (q. v.). (See also Alliklik.) Nongatl. Significance unknown. Also called: Saia, by the Hupa, along with other Athapascans to the south; meaning "far off." Connections.- The Nongatl belonged to the Athapascan linguistic family and were closely connected with the Lassik (q. v.). Location.- In the territory drained by three right-hand effluents of Eel River- Yager Creek, Van Dusen Fork, and Larrabee Creek- and on the upper waters of Mad River. Population.- The Nongatl were estimated by Kroober (1925) to number in 1770, along with the Sinkyone and Lassik, 2,000, and 100 in 1910. (See Bear River Indians.) Okwanuchu. Significance unknown. Connections.- The Okwanuchu belonged to the Shastan Division of the Hokan linguistic stock. Location.- On the upper Sacramento from about the vicinity of Salt and Boulder Creeks to its headwaters; also on the McCloud River and Squaw Creek from about their junction up. Population.- See Chimariko and Shasta. Paiute, Northern. The Northern Paiute occupied part of the Sierra in the southeastern part of the State and the desert country east of it and also a strip of laud in the extreme northeast. (See Nevada.) Patwin. Signifying "person" in their own language. Connections.- The Patwin formed the southernmost and most diverse dialectic division of the former Wintun (or Copehan) linguistic family, now considered part of the Penutian stock. Location.- On the western side of Sacramento Valley, and extending from San Francisco Bay to a point a little south of Willows, occupying both sides of Sacramento River from a few miles above its junction with Feather River to the northern boundaries of their territory. Subdivisions, or "Tribelets," and Villages (As given by Kroeber, 1932) River Patwin: Colusa Dialect: Katsi'l, less than a mile below the present Katsi'l Reservation. Ke'ti' on the site of the present Princeton Koru' in Colusa city, named from it. Kukui, one and a half miles below Koru'. Soma 2 miles below modern Katsi'l, somewhat off the river, and not certainly an independent unit. Tatno, perhaps 2 miles above Colusa. Ts'a', 3 miles below Princeton. Wa'itere, 2 or 3 miles above the present Katsi'l, or "Colusa rancheria." Grimes Dialect: Ko'doi(-dihi), a mile below Saka, on the J. Brown place. Kussmpu, on the east side of Sacramento River, perhaps a mile below No'matsapin. Lo'klokma-ti'nbe, in the southern outskirts of Grimes. No'matsapin, about 5 miles downstream from Saka. Nowi(-dihi), 1 mile below Lo'klokma-ti'nbe P'alo, 1 or 2 miles downstream from Tsalki, some 3 miles above Kirkville. Saks, little more than 100 yards from last, at Eddy's Ferry. Tsaki, 7 or 8 miles below Saka. T'inik(-dihi), on the east side about opposite Ko'doi, status uncertain. Yali, opposite Saka, on east bank. Knight's Landing Dialect (only ones remembered): Hololum (?), between Kirkville and Knight's Landing. Yo'doi, at Knight's Landing giving name to Yolo. Hill Patwin (from south to north): South of Cache no names of tribelets are known but villages called Swkol, Tuluka, Ula-to, Topai-dihi, and Liwai-to. On Lower Cache Creek Barrett places Pulupulu, Churup, Kachituli, also Moso (at Capay). C. H. Merriam (1929) gives Koph' (Kope) (in the broad flat part of Capay Valley near Brooks), and Kroeber (1932) Hacha (3 miles below Capay). Kisi a village upstream on Cache Creek, may have been a tribal center. Imii a village apparently in a tribal territory (near Guinda), and Suya, a village (half a mile north of Guinda), besides 16 inhabited sites mentioned by one informant. Lopa and Tebti (on or near Cache Creek), villages probably belonging to a tribelet. Sukui-sel; whose principal village was Sukui (2-3 miles above Sulphur Creek). Kuikui, a village was Sukui (2-3 miles above Sulphur Creek). Kuikui, A village (on Cache Creek 2 miles below the mouth of Bartlett), and Opi, a village (on Cache Creek at the mouth of Bartlett), probably in a tribelet. Tebti-sel, including the villages of Tebti (on Bartlett Creek at the mouth of Long Valley Creek), and Helu'supet or Helu'sapet (downstream within 2 or 3 miles of Gache Creek). Lol-sel, located at village of A'li-ma-ti'nbe (some 5 miles up Long Valley Creek). Loli (either on Bartlett Creek 3 miles from Tebti or in Indian Valley) was a village in an unnamed tribelet. Wor-pa'ntibe, one of whose villages was Wa'i-taluk (in Morgan Valley south of Cache Creek). Tsuhel-mem or Chuhel-mem, a village on Indian Creek above Ladoga and Kabal-mem or Kabel-mem, a later village. A tribelet called Edl' or Edi'la. A tribelet with villages at Bahka(labe) (not far from the mouth of Indian Creek). Kula'(-la) (some miles up), and Dikikala'i (downstream from Bahka). Yakut (on Sand Creek), perhaps a tribelet by itself. Wa'ikau-sel, with villages at Let(-labe) (near Cortina Creek). Wa'ikau (on main Cortina Creek), and perhaps Kotu (1 1/2 or 2 miles upstream from Wa'ikau). A tribelet at Pone (on Grapevine Canyon or Road, three or more miles north of Sites). Potba-sel, or a village called Potba(-labe), (at a spring in a gulley half a dozen miles north of the last. Population.- (See Wintun.) Pomo. From the native ending -pomo or -poma, placed after the names of village or local groups, the exact meaning of which is unknown. Also called: Nokonmi, Yuki name. Connections.- The Pomo were originally placed in a distinct linguistic stock (Kulanapan) but are now attached to the widely scattered Hokan family. Location.- The Pacific Coast between Cleone and Duncan's Point, and inland, with some interruptions, as far as Clear Lake; there was a detached group on Stony Creek. Subdivisions The Pomo were divided dialectically into the following groups: Salt Pomo or Northeastern Pomo, on the headwaters of Stony Creek. Eastern Pomo, on the northern and southern effluents of Clear Lake. Southeastern Pomo, about Lower Lake. Northern Pomo, from the northern boundary of Pomo territory to Navarro River and some distance above Ukiah on Russian River. Central Pomo, from the above boundaries to Gualala on the coast and a point north of Cloverdale on Russian River. Southern Pomo or Gallinomero, in the inland portion of the remaining Pomo territory. Southwestern or Gualala Pomo, on the coast section of the remaining territory. Certain divisions larger than villages were recognized in an indefinite way by the people themselves. Village Communities Northeastern Pomo: Bakamtati, at Stony Ford. Cheetido, at the salt deposit. Turururaibida, above the forks of Stony Creek. The status of the last two of these is somewhat uncertain. Eastern Pomo: Bidamiwina, Nonapotl, and Shabegok were names of three places which were at different times centers of a community called Habe-napo or "rock people," around Kelseyville. Danoha, some miles up an eastern affluent of lower Scott Creek, connected with which was Badonnapoti on Bloody Island in Upper Lake off the mouth of Scott Creek and Behepel or Gabehe between the two. Howalek, on Middle Creek near Upper Lake town. Kashibadon, at Lakeport on the west side of the lake. Shigom, on the east side of main Clear Lake. Yobutui, on the opposite side of lower Scott Creek from the northern Pomo village of Mayi. Southeastern Pomo: Elem, on Rattlesnake or Sulphur Bank Island in the Bay known as East Lake. Kamdot or Lemakma, on Buckingham Island near the entrance to Lower Lake. Koi, Hoyi, Shutauyomanok, or Kaubokolai, on an island near the outlet of the lake. Northern Pomo: Bakau, at Little Lake north of Willits. Buldam, at the mouth of Big River. Chomchadila, on the West Fork near Calpelia. Chauishak, near Willits. Dapishu or Kachabida, in Redwood Canyon. Kachake, on Mill Creek, separate position uncertain. Kadiu, at the mouth of Noyo River. Kalaili, at the mouth of Little River. Katuli, above Navarro River at Christine. Komli, at Ukiah. Kulakai, at a lake south of Shernwood. Lemkolil, on Anderson Creek near Boonville. Masut or Shivol, on the West Fork of Russian River near the mouth of Seward Creek. Mato, northwest of Sherwood. Mayi, on Scott Creek near Tule Lake, not far from the town of Upper Lake. Nabo or Nato, near Willits. Naboral, on Scott Creek northwest of Lakeport. Pomo, in Potter Valley downstream from Sedam. Shabnkana, Bitadanek, and Kobida, three sites successively inhabited by one group, whose home was on Forsythe Creek. Sedam, in Potter Valley downstream from Shanel. Shachamkau, Chamkawi or Bomaa, downstream?, in Coyote Valley. Shanekai, in a small elevated valley between the heads of an affluent of southern Eel River and a tributary of Middle Creek which drains into the head of Clear Lake. Shanel or Seel or Botel, at the north end of Potter Valley on the East Fork of Russian River. Shotsiu, east of Willits. Tabate, below Philo on Navarro River. Tsakamo, on Russian River at the mouth of Cold Creek. Tsamomda, west of Willits. Tsiyakabeyo, on a tributary of Middle Creek which drains into the head of Clear Lake, probably only a part of Shanekai. On the North Fork of Navarro River were three sites, Chaida, Chulgo, and Huda, which may have constituted a community. Central Porno: Danokeya, name uncertain, on Rancheria Creek. Kahwalau, Russian River at the mouth of Pieta Creek. Kodalau, on Brush Creek. Koloko, Russian River at the mouth of Squaw Creek. Lachupda, on the upper waters of the North Fork of Gualala River. Lema on McNab Creek a mile or two up from Russian River. Pdahau or Icheche, on Lower Garcia River. Shanel, near the mouth of McDowell and Feliz Creeks, in Hopland Valley. Shepda, on Russian River at the entry of Wise Creek. Shiego, on Russian River at the mouth of McNab Creek. Shokadjal, on Russian River in Ukiah Valley. Tatem, downstream from the last and in the same village. Southern Pomo or Gallinomero: Batikleehawi, at Sebastopol at the head of the slough known as Laguna de Santa Rosa, an important village and probably the head of a district. Hiwalhmu, a village and probably the head of a community on the Gualala River drainage. Hukabetawi, near Santa Rosa City and perhaps the head of a community. Kalme, a community in the Russian River drainage. Kubahmoi, a village and probably the head of a community on the Gualala River drainage. Makahmo, on the Russian drainage at the mouth of Sulphur Creek. Ossokowi, a village and probably the center of a community on Russian River extending from the mouth of Elk Creek halfway up to Geyserville. Shamli, a village on Gualala River drainage, perhaps the head of a community. Shawako, on Dry Creek at the mouth of Pina Creek. Wilok, at the head of Santa Rosa Creek. Wotokkaton, head of a community in the vicinity of Healdsburg. Southwestern or Gualala Pomo: Ashachatiu, a village at the mouth of Russian River connected probably with Chalanchawi. Chalanchawi (see Ashachatiu). Chiti-bida-kali, north of Timber Cove. Danaga, at Stewart's Point. Hibuwi, on the Middle Fork of the Gualala. Kowishal, at Black Point. Meteni, perhaps the name of a group at the site of Fort Ross, though another name, Madshuinui is also mentioned. Potol, on Haupt and Hopper Creeks, perhaps the center of a group. Population.- Kroeber (1925) estimates 8,000 Pomo in 1770; the census of 1910 returned 777, but this figure perhaps does not include all, as Kroeber gives 1,200 for the same year. According to the census of 1930, there were then 1,143. Salinan. From Salinas River which drains most of their territory. Connections.- Formally considered a distinct linguistic stock, they are now connected with the Hokan linguistic family. Location.- From the headwaters of the Salinas- or perhaps only from the vicinity of the Santa Margarita Divide- north to Santa Lucia Peak and an unknown point in the valley somewhere south of Soledad; and from the sea presumably to the main crest of the Coast Range. Subdivisions On linguistic grounds the Salinan have been divided into the San Miguel Salinas on the upper course of Salinas River, the San Antooio Salinas below the preceding to Costanoan territory, and the Playano along the coast. Villages San Antonio Division: Chahomesh, at the head of San Antonio River. Chohwahl, near the mouth of San Antonio River. Chukilin, at the head of Nacimiento Creek. Holamna Jolon, southeast of San Antonio Mission. Nasihl Pleyto, on lower San Antonio River. Sapewis, below the preceding. Skotitoki, north of San Antonio Mission. Tesospek, on San Antonio River above San Antonio Mission. Tetachoya Ojitos, on lower San Antonio River. San Miguel Division: Cholame, probably on Cholame Creek or at the mouth of Estrella Creek. Teshaumis, on the upper course of Cholame Creek. Teshaya, at San Miguel Mission. Trolole, near Cholame or near Santa Margarita. Playano: Ehmahl, located conjecturally near Lucia. Lema, perhaps lower down the coast than the preceding. Ma'tihl'she, located conjecturally still farther south. Tsilakaka, placed conjecturally near San Simeon. Population.- Kroeber (1925) estimates that there may have been 3,000 Salinan in 1770 but that 2,000 is a safer estimate; about 40 remain. The census of 1910 returned 16; that of 1930, none. Serrano. A Spanish word, meaning "mountaineers." Also called: Banumints, Chemehuevi name. Cow-ang-a-chem, own name (Barrows 1900). Cuabajai applied by Mohave to those about Tejon Creek. Genigueches, by Garces in 1776. Gikidanum, or Gitanemuk, Serrano of upper Tejon and Paso Creeks in the San Joaquin Valley drainage. Hanakwiche, by some Yuman tribes. Hanyuveche, Mohave name. Kniviat-am, given by a native as their own name, from kaich, "mountain." Kuvahaivima, Mohave name for those about Tejon Creek. Marangakh, by their southern and other neighbors. Marayam, Luiseho name. Mayintalap, southern Yokuts name for Serrano of upper Tejon, Paso, and possibly Pasloria Creeks, meaning "large bows." Mdhineyam, narne for themselves, given by Mohave River Serrano. Panumits, Chemchuevi name for Serrano north of the San Bernardino Range, toward Tehachapi Mountains. Pitantn, Chemehuevi name for those Serrano north of San Bernardino Range in Mohave Desert and on Tejon Creek. Takhtam, by Gatschet (in Wheeler Surv., vol. 7, p. 413, 1879), meaning "men." Tamankamyam, by the related Aguas Calientcs. Witanghatal, Tubatulabal name for the Tejon Creek Serrano. Connections.- The Serrano belonged to the Shoshonean Division of the Uto-Aztecan linguistic stock. Location.- In the San Bernardino Range; a tract of unknown extent northward; the San Gabriel Mountains or Sierra Madre west to Mount San Antonio; and probably a tract of fertile lowland south of the Sierra Madre, from about Cucamongn east to above Mentone and as far as San Gorgonio Pass. Villages The following place names have been recorded and many of these probably were names of villages: Acha-va-t, east of Bear Lake. Aka-va-t, west of Banning. Arhangk, near Colton. Atan-pa-t, northeast of Acha-va-t. Hikavanu-t, west of Colton. Hisaku-pa, on the outlet of Bear Lake. Hunga-va-t, in San Timotec Canyon. Kayah-pia-t, at Bear Lake. Kotaina-t, on Santa Ana River east of San Bernardino. Kalki, northeast of Banning. Maronga, on Morongo Creek. Musku-pia-bit, northwest of San Bernardino. Nilengli, near San Bernardino Peak. Nanamu-vya-t, at the head of Mohave River. Padjudju-t, at the head of Mohave River. Puwipuwi, near San Gorgonio Mountain. Toloka-bi, in San Timoteo Canyon. Wacha-vak, where San Timoteo Canyon comes out on Santa Ana River. Wahinu-t, in Cajon Canyon. Yamiwu, perhaps Cahuilla, north of San Jacinto Peak. Population.- Kroeber gives 1,500 Serrano as an ample allowance in aboriginal times; the census of 1910 returned 118. (See Alliklik.) Shasta. Probably from a chief called Sasti. Also called: Ekpimi, Ilmawi name. Mashukhara, Karok name. Wulx, Takelma name, meaning "enemies." Connections.- The Shasta constituted part of the Shastan division of the Hokan linguistic stock. Location.- On Klamath River from a point between Indian and Thompson Creeks to a spot a few miles above the mouth of Fall Creek; also the drainage areas of two tributaries of the Klamath- Scott River and Shasta River- and a tract on the north side of the Siskiyous in Oregon on the effluents of Rogue River known as Stewart River and Little Butte Creek. Subdivisions Ahotueitsu, in Shasta Valley. Cecilville Indians, about Cecilville; they spoke a distinct dialect; the Indians called by Merriam (1926) Haldokehewuk. Iruaitsu, in Scott Valley. Kahosadi, on the effluents of Rogue River. Kammatwa or Wiruhikwairuk'a, on Klamath River. The term New River Shasta is incorrectly used since there were no Shasta on New River. Villages Ahotiretsu Division: Ahawaiwig, Astn, Ihiweah, Ikahig, Kusta Iruaitsu Division: Itayah and Crowichaira the only ones known. Kammatwa Division (in order up stream): Chitatowoki (north side), Ututsu (N.), Asouru (N.), Sumai (N.), Arahi (S.), Harokwi (N.), Kwasuk (S.), Aika (N.), Umtahawa (N.), Itiwukha (N.), Ishui (N.), Awa (N.), Waukaiwa (N.), Opshiruk (N.), Tshumpi (N.). Okwayig (N ), Eras (S.), Asurahawa (S.), Kutsastsus (N.). Population.- Kroeber (1925) estimates that there were about 2,000 Shasta in 1770; in 1910 there were only about 100. The entire Shastan stock numbered 844 according to the returns of the 1930 census, and in 1937, 418 "Pit River" Indians were enumerated, a portion of this stock. Connections in which they have become noted.- Mount Shasta, Shasta County, and a place in the county preserve the name of the Shasta Indians. Sinkyone. From Sinkyo, the name of the South Fork of Eel River. Connections.- The Sinkyone were one of the tribes of the southern California group of the Athapascan family. Location.- On the South Fork of Eel River and its branches and the adjacent coast from near Four Mile Creek to Usal Lagoon. Land Areas (Given by native informants to Nomland (1935) instead of villages) Anse'ntakuk, the land south of Briceland. Chashinguk, the ridge north of Briceland. Senke'kuk, to the South Fork from Garberville. Shusashish'ha, the region north of Garberville. Totro'be, the land around Briceland. Yenekuk, an area southeast of Briceland. Yese', coast area to the Mattole boundary at Four Mile Creek. Yese'kuk, the Mattole River area. Population.- (See Lassik and Bear River Indian). Tolowa. So-called by the Yurok. Also called Aqusta, by Dorsey (MS.), meaning "southern language," Naltunnetunne name. Lagoons, by Heintzlernam (in Ind. Aff. Rep., 1857, p. 392; 1858). Lopas, by Heintzleman (op. cit.). Connections.- The Tolowa constituted one of the divisions into which the California peoples of the Athapascan linguistic stock are divided, but they were closely connected with the Athapascan tribes of Oregon immediately to the north. Location.- On Crescent Bay, Lake Earl, and Smith River. Villages (According to Drucker, 1937) Etculet, at end of point in Lake Earl. Ha'tsahothwut, long abandoned site. Kehosli'hwut, on east bank, lower course of Smith River. Mestlte'tltun, on Crescent Bay. Mi'litcuntun, on middle course of Smith River. Mu'nsontun, on east bank, on lower course of Smith River. Munshri'na taso', long abandoned site. Muslye', on North Fork of Smith River. Na'kutat, a suburb of Tatitun, Numore'tun, long abandoned site. Sitragi'tum, on the west bank of Smith River below Mill Creek. Ta'gestlsatun, on coast at mouth of Wilson Crcek, mixed with Yurok. Ta'tatun, on Crescent Bay. Tati'tun, on shore of Crescent Bay near north end. Tcestu'mtun, on South Fork of Smith River. Tcunsu'tltun, on east bank of Smith River at mouth of Mill Creek. Te'nitcuntun, between North and South Forks of Smith River at junction. Tltru'ome, on Crescent Bay toward south end. Tro'let, a small suburb of Yotokut near mouth of Smith River. Tunme'tun, on a small branch of the North Fork of Smith River. Tushroshku'shtun, on peninsula between two arms of Lake Earl. Yoto'kut, on coast south of mouth of Smith River. Population.- Kroebcr estimates "well under" 1,000 Tolowa in 1770 and indicates a possible modification to 450; the census of 1910 returned 121. In 1930 the "Oregon Athapascans," including the Tolowa, were reported to number 504. Tubatulabal. A Shoshonean word meaning "pine-nut eaters." Also called: Bahkanapul or Pahkanapil, own name, said to refer to all those who speak their language. Kern River Indians. popular name. Pitanisha, the usual Yokuts name, from Pitani-u, the place- name of the forks of Kern River. Wateknasi, by Yokuts, meaning "pine-nut eaters." Connections.- Under the name of Kern River Shoshoneans, the Tubatulabal are given a position as one of the major divisions of the Shoshonean branch of the Uto-Aztecan linguistic family. Location.- In the upper part of the valley of Kern River. Subdivisions Bankalachi, on west slopes of Greenhorn Mountains. Palagewan, on Kern River above mouth of South Fork. Tubatulabal, on lower reaches of South Fork of Kern River. Villages E. W. Voegelin (1938) gives the following: Palagewan sites: Holit, near mouth of Bull Run Creek, SW. quar, see. 4, T. 25 S., R. 33 E. Pashgeshtap, at hot spring on east edge of Hot Springs Valley, SE. quar., sec. 31 T. 26 S., R. 33 E. Tcuhkayi, at hot springs in foothills, SE. quar. sec. 26, T. 25 S., R. 33 E. Tubatulabal sites: Hahalam, South Fork Kern River, NW. quar., sec. 16, T. 26 S., R. 34 E. Kolokum, near springs on Fay Creek, NE. quar., sec. 22, T. 25 S., R. 34 E. Omomip, (1) on north bank of South Fork Kern River, NW. quar., sec. 3, T. 26 S., R. 35 E. (2), north bank of South Fork of Kern River, SW., quar., sec. 4, T. 26 S., R. 35 E. Padazhap, below and above spring, in foothills south of South Fork Valley, SW. quar., sec. 31, T. 26 S., R. 34 E. Tcebunun, south hank of South Fork of Kern River, SW. quar., sec. 35, T. 25 S., R. 35 E. Tushpan, on floor of South Fork Valley, SW. quar., sec. 14, T. 26 S., R. 34 E. Umubilap, below spring on flat, near west end of South Fork Valley, SE. quar., sec. 12, T. 26 S., R. 33 E. Uupulap, on the west side of South Fork of Kern River, NW. quar., sec. 24, T. 25 S., R. 35 E. Yitiyamup, at springs in foothills, north edge of South Fork Valley, SE. quar, ser. 35, T. 25 S., R. 34 E. Yowolup, at spring on floor of South Fork Valley. Name unknown, on South Fork of Kern River, NE. quar., sec. 18, T. 26 S., R. 34 E. History.- From the specialization of their language, Kroeber (1925) inferred that these people had occupied their country for a long time but later researches by Whorf (1935) make this less certain. The first white person to visit them was Father Garces in 1776 and during the next 50 years they were brought in contact with the San Buena Ventura Mission, founded in 1782 near Ventura. By 1846 white settlers had established ranches in South Fork Valley, and in 1857 the Kern River gold rush began in Palagewan territory. During 1862 a few Tubatulabal joined the Owens Valley Paiute in hostilities against the Whites, and about this time a group of Koso Indians settled in the Tubatulabal area, intermarrying chiefly with the Kawaiisu, however. In 1863, 35-40 Tubatulnbal and Palagewan men were massacred near Kernville by American soldiers. Between 1865 and 1875 the Tubatulabal began to practice agriculture and in 1893 the majority of them and a few Palagewan survivors were allotted land in South Fork and Kern Valleys. Population.- Kroeber (1925) makes an estimate of 1,000 Tubatulabal for the year 1770 but Voegelin (1938) regards this as "probably too high." Henley in 1854 gives a figure of 100 which seems to apply to the Tubatulabal and Palagewan Bands, but Voegelin points out that it may be necessary to double this on account of a band temporarily absent from the country, and the same writer estimates that Henley indicates a band of perhaps 50 which may have been the Bankalachi. A village sit estimate obtained by Voegelin (1938) from native informants suggested a total about 1855-60 of 228 Tubatulabal, and 65 Palagewan, or 293 combined. An estimate for 1863 based on the total of adult males indicates a population of 220. The United States Census of 1910 returned 105 and a field census taken by Voegelin in 1832 including all mixtures, 145. Vanyume. Name applied by the Mohave; significance unknown, though it is probably related to the term Panamint given to the Koso. Connections.- The Vanyume belonged to the Shoshonean Division of the Uto-Aztecan linguistic stock, their closest connections being probably with the Kitanemuk, and secondly with the Serrano. Location.- On Mohave River. Population.- (See Alliklik.) They are now extinct as a tribe. Wailaki. A Wintun word meaning "north language," applied to other Wintun groups and to some foreign groups. Also called: Kak'-wits, Yuki name, meaning "northern people." Connections.- The Wailaki belonged to the Athapascan linguistic stock and to the southern California group. Location.- On Eel River from the Lassik territory to the Big Bend, several affluents on the west side, Kekawaka Creek on the east side, and the whole of the North Fork except the head. Subdivisions and Village Communities (in order of location) On main Eel River: Sehlchikyo-kaiya, on the east side, Big Bend Creek to McDonald Creek. Ninkannich-kaiya, opposite Sehlchikyo-kaiya. Nehlchikyo-kaiya, on the east side downstream to the mouth of North Fork. Sehlchikyo-kaiya, on the east side downstream. Tatisho-kaiya, on the west side opposite the mouth of North Fork. Bas-kaiya, on the east side below Sehlchikyo-kaiya. Sla-kaiya, on the east side below Bas-kaiya. Chisko-kaiya, on the east side below Sla-kaiya. Seta-kaiya, on the west side below Tatisho-kaiya. Kaikiche-kaiyn, on the west side below Seta-kaiya. Dahlso-kaiya, Set'ahlchicho-kaiya, K'andang-kaiya- in order downstream on the west side. Ihikodang-kaiya, on the west side below Chisko-kaiya. Kasnaikot-kaiya, on the east side at the mouth of Kakawaka Creek. On the lower part of North Fork: Setandong-kiyahang, Secho-kiyahang, Kaiye-kiyahang- in order upstream. Higher up North Fork: T'odannang-kiyahang, on the North Fork below Hull Creek. T'okyah-kiyahang, upstream on North Fork. Chokot-kiyahang, on and above Red Mountain Creek. Ch'i'ankot-kiyahang, on Jesus Creek. Population.- The Wailaki were estimated by Kroeber (1925) as 1,000 about 1770; they were given as 227 in the census of 1910. (See Bear River Indians.) Wappo. - An Americanization of Spanish Guapo. "brave," given them on account of their stubborn resistance to Spanish military aggression. Also called: Ash-o-chl-mi, a name given by Powers (1877). Soteomellos or Sotomieyos, names given by Taylor (1860-63). Connections.- The Wappo language constituted a very divergent form of speech of the Yukian linguistic family. Location.- On the headwaters of Napa River and Pope and Putah Creeks, and a stretch of Russian River. Subdivisions and Villages Following are their dialectic divisions and the villages in each, the names in italic being principal towns in as many village communities: Southern Wappo: Anakota-noma, at St. Helena. Kaimus, at Yountville. Tsemanoma, northeast of St. Helena. Wilikos, near the head of Sonoma Creek. Central Wappo: Maiyalcama, south of Calistoga. Melka'wa-hotsa-noma, at site of Middletown-Driver. Mutistul, between the Napa River and Russian River drainage. Nihlektsonoma, north of Calistoga. Tselmenan, north of Calistoga. Northern Wappo: Lok-noma, northeast of Middletown. Petinoma, north of Middletown. Uyuhanoma, east of Middletown. Western Wappo: Ashaben, near Lytton. Gayechin, near Lytton. Hol-tcu'kolo, location unknown. Koloko, on Russian River below Geyserville. Malalachahl, at Lytton. Nets-tul, northeast of Tsimitu-tsonoma. Oso'yuk-eju, west of Russian River and southeast of Geyserville. Owotel-peti, east of Tsimitutsonoma. Pipoholma, on Russian River below Geyerville. Shei-kana, location unknown. Shimela, on Russian River below Geyserville. Tsi'mitu-tso-noma, on the east bank of Russian River some miles below Geyserville. Tekenan-tso-noma, near Geysers in Sulphur Creek drainage. Unuts'wa-holma-noma, north of Tsitmitu-tso-noma. Lile'ek Wappo: Daladan, on Cole Creek. Kabetsawam, on Cole Creek. Driver (1939) adds the following names of camp sites, presumably in the country of the Western Wappo: Halish-wahuk-holma, Ho'lko-mota, Hut-mitul, Nuya-hotsa, Tcano-nayuk, Ts'awo-tul, Tikomota, Walma-pesite. Population.- Kroeber (1925) estimates 1,000 Wappo in 1770 as a maximum; the census of 1910 returned 73. (See Yuki.) Washo. The range, of this tribe extended over considerable Californian territory about the angle in the eastern boundary line of the State. (See Nevada.) Whilkut. From Hupa Hoilkut-hoi. Also called: Redwood Indians, the popular name for them. Connections.- The Whilkut belonged to the Hupa dialectic group of the Athapascan linguistic family. Location.- On the upper part of Redwood Creek above the Chilula Indians and Mad River, except in its lowest course, up to the vicinity of Iaqua Butte. Population.- Kroeber (1932) estimates about 500 Whilkut in aboriginal times; the census of 1910 returned 50 full-bloods and some mixed-bloods. Wintu. The native word meaning "people." For synonyms see Wintun. Connections.- The Wintu were the northern-most division of the Copehan stock of Powell, later called Wintun by Kroeber (1932) and now regarded as part of the Penutian family. Location.- In the valleys of the upper Sacramento and upper Trinity Rivers north of Cottonwood Creek and extending from Cow Creek on the east to the South Fork of the Trinity on the west. Subdivisions (As given by Du Bois (1935) but placing the native name first) Dau-nom, "in-front-of-west" (Bald Hills), a flat valley area at the foot of the hills south of Reading and east of the coastal range. Dau-pom, "in-front-of-place" (Stillwater), comprising the plateau to the north of Reading. Elpom, "shore place" (Keswick), extending from a point somewhat south of Kennett on the Sacramento chiefly along the west bank southward almost to Reading, and including the former Indian settlements around the mining town of Old Shasta. EIayfork Wintu, on the Hayfork branch of Trinity River and on Trinity River about Junction City, extending also from about Middletown westward to the South Fork of the Trinity. Klabalpom (French Gulch), on the upper reaches of Clear Creek. Nomsus, "west-dwelling" (Upper Trinity), on the East Fork of Trinity River and Trinity River proper as far south as Lewiston. Nomtipom, "west-hillside-place" (Upper Sacramento), along the precipitous reaches of the upper Sacramento above Kennett. Waimuk, "north inhabitant(?)," in the narrow valley of the upper McCloud River. Winimen, "middle-water" (McCloud), in the McCloud and lower Pit Valleys. Du Bois (1935) mentions Nomkentcau and Nomkali as two villages in Watson Gulch. Population.- (See Wintun.) Wintun. The word for "people" in the northern Wintun dialects. Also called: Wawah, Mono name for all Sacramento River tribes, meaning "strangera" Xatukwiwa, Shasta name for a Wintun Indian. Connections.- The Wintun were formerly considered a part of Powell's Copehan stock and the Wintun of Kroeber (1932) but are now placed in the Penutian family. Location.- On the west side of the Sacramento Valley from the river up to the coast range, but falling short of this in spots and extending beyond it in others, and from Cottonwood Creek on the north to about the latitude of Afton and Stonyford on the south. Wintun Tribelets (Generally south to north) Dahchi'mchini-sel, in a village called Dahchi'mchini (upstream of Brisco Creek and 4 miles above Elk Creek). Toba, reported by Barrett (1919) as a town at the mouth of Brisco Creek. A tribelet probably located at Tolokai or Doloke (at the mouth of Elk Creek). Pomtididi-sel, at the village of Pomtididi (where Grindstone Creek enters Stony Creek). A tribelet at a village called Kalaicl ton the North Fork of Stony Creek) . Soninmnk (at a "butte" named Son-pom down Stony Creek). Pelti-kewel (reported north of preceding by one informant). A tribelet at the villages of Sohu's-labe (3 or 4 miles south of Fruto) and Nome'l-mim-labe (2 or 3 miles farther south still). Nom-kewel or Nom-laka, with their village, Lo-pom (south of Thomas Creek). Walti-kewel, with villages called Noitikel, Kenkopol, and Snipsnti (close together on the north side of Thomas Creek below Nom-kewel). Olwenem-wintun, at O'lwenem (near the mouth of Thomas, Creek on the Sacramento). A tribelet at Ml'tenek (at Squaw Hill Ferry). Pelmem-we, at Pelmem (near Vina and the mouth of Deer Creek). Tehemet, (at Tehama). Da-mak (where Redbank Creek comes in below Red Bluff). Wai-kenwel (on Elder Creek). A tribelet at Chuidau (on the South Fork of Cottonwood Creek). Population.- Kroeber (1932) estimates 12,000 Wintun in 1770 and about 1,000 in 1910. The census of 1930 returned 512 Wintun, Wintu, and Wappo. Wiyot. Properly the name of one of the three Wiyot districts but extended by most of their neighbors over the whole people. Also called: Dilwishne, Sinkyone name. Humboldt Bay Indians, popular term. Sulatelik, used by the Wiyot to designate their language, and approaching a tribal designation in its usage. Wishosk, probably a misapplication of the Wiyot name for their Athapascan neighbors. Connections.- In the Powellian classification the Wiyot were given an independent position as the Wishoskan stock. Later California investigators combined them with the Yurok under the narne Ritwan but still later believed that they had established a relationship between them and the great Algonquian family of the east. This allocation is, however, questioned by other ethnologists. Location.- On lower Mad River, Humboldt Bay, and lower Eel River. Subdivisions Batavrnt, on lower Mad River. Wiki, on Humboldt Bay. Wiyot, on lower Eel River. Villages Bimire, on the lower part of Humboldt Bay. Dakduwaka, or Hiluwitl(?), on the southern point at the entrance to Humholdt Bay. Dakwagerawakw, on Eel River. Dulawat, on an island in Humboldt Bay. Hakitege (?), at the junction of Eel and Van Duzen Rivers. Ho'ket (?), near the mouth of Eel River. Kachewinach (?), on Mad River. Kotsir (?), at the northern end of Humboldt Bay. Kumaidada, on Freshwater Creek. Legetku (?), at the southern end of Humboldt Bay. hIa'awor, Yurok name; at the mouth of Mad River. Osok, Yurok name; on Mad River, Potitlik, Cherokigechk, of Pletswak (?), opposite the entrance of Humholdt Bay. Tabagaukwa (?), at the mouth of Mad River. Tabayat or Witki (?), on Humboldt Bay. Tokelomigimitl (?), north of Humboldt Bay. Watsayeriditl (?), on Eel River. We'tso (?), on the south side of Mad River. Wuktlakw (?), on the north side of Eel River. Yacbwanawach, at the end of Humboldt Bay. Population.- Kroeber (1932) estimates 1,000 Wiyot in 1770 and 100 in 1910. The census of 1930 gives 236 but probably includes Indians of other connections. Yahi. Meaning "person" in their own language. Connections.- The Yahi constituted the southernmost group of the Yanan division of the Hokan linguistic stock. Location.- On Mill and Deer Creeks. Villages Bushkuina, Tolochuaweyu, and Tuliyani were on or near Mill Creek; Bopmayhuwi, Gahma, K'andjauha, Puhiya, and Yisch'inna on or near Deer Creek. Population.- Included in the Yana (q. v.). Yana. Meaning "person" in their own language. Also called: Kom'-bo, Maidu name. No-si or No-zi, a name given by Powers (1877). Tisaiqdji, Ilmawi name. Connections.- The Yana are originally considered an independent linguistic stock but are now placed in the larger Hokan family. Location.- Including the Yahi, the Yana extended from Pit River to Rock Creek, and from the edge of the upper Sacramento Valley to the headwaters of the eastern tributaries of Sacramento River. Subdivisions Aside from the Yahi (q. v.), they embraced three dialectic subdivisions, a northern (on the drainage of Montgomery Creek into Pit River and that of Cedar Creek, an affluent of Little Crow Creek), a central (the entire Cow Creek drainage and Bear Creek), and a southern (on Battle, Payne, and Antelope Creeks and one or two smaller streams). Villages Northern Division: Djewintaurik'u, south of Montgomery Djitpamauwid'u, on Cedar Creek. K'asip'u, south of Round Mountain. Central Division: Badjiyu, on Clover Creek. Ban'ha, inland between the two forks of Cow Creek. Djichitpemauna, on Bear Creek. Hamedamen, at Millville. Haudulimauna, near the South Fork of Cow Creek. Hodjinimauna, on the North Fork of Bear Creek. Luwaiha, on Old Cow Creek. Pawi, on Clover Creek. Pulsu'aina, near the North Fork of Cow Creek. Ship'a, between Little Cow Creek and Oak Run. Unchunaha, between the North Fork of Cow Creek and Clover Creek. Wamarawi, west of Shingletown. Wichuman'na, on the South Fork of Cow Creek. Southern Division: K'uwiha, on Battle Creek. Population.- Kroeber (1932) estimates 1,500 Yana in 1770 including the Yahi, and states that there are less than 40 full- and mixed-bloods today, all of the Northern and Central Divisions. Only 9 appear under the head of Yanan in the census of 1930. Yokuts. The name for "person," or "people," in many of the dialects of the group. Also called: Mariposan, a name derived from Mariposa County, and applied to the stock to which these people were originally assigned by Powell. Noche, a name used by Garces in 1775-76 (1900). Connections.- The Yokuts were originally considered a distinct linguistic family but have now been made a part of the large Penutian stock. Location.- On the entire floor of San Joaquin Valley from the mouth of San Joaquin River to the foot of Tehachapi, and the adjacent lower slopes or foothills of the Sierra Nevada, up to an altitude of a few thousand feet, from Fresno River south. Subdivisions and Villages These were as follows: Buena Vista Group: Tulamni (on Buena Vista Lake), including thc villages of Tulamniu (on the west or northwest shore of the lake), and Wogitiu (at McKittrick). Hometwoli or Humetwadi (on Kern Lake), including the villages of Halau (near the entrance of Kern River into the channel connecting Kern and Buena Vista lakes). Loasau (somewhere on the north side of Kern Lake), and Sihetal Daal or Pohalin Tinliu (on the south shore). Tuhohi, Tohohai, or Tuohayi (among the channels and tule- lined slooghs of lower Kern River, perhaps ranging as far as Grass Lake), including the village of Tahayu (location unknown). Poso Creek Group: Paleuyami, Padeuyami, Peleuyi, or Paluyam (on Poso Creek and neighboring parts of Kern River), including the villages of Altau (just south of Poso Creek), Bekiu (in Poso Flat), Shikidapau (in Poso Flat), Holmiu (in Linn's Valley) and Kumachisi, Kornechcsi, Komctsicsi, or Kumachesi (centered about Eloschiu on White River), including the villages of Hoschiu (on White River), and Kelsiu (just south of White River). Tule-Kau enh Group: Yaudanchi, Yaulanchi, or Nutaa (Tule River in the foothills especially the North and Middle Forks), including the villages of Shawahtau (above Springville), and Ukun'ui (above Daunt), and perhaps Uchiyingetau (at the painted rocks). Bokninuwad, or Bokninwal (on Deer Creek in the foothills), including Keyau (near the valley), and perhaps Hoin Tinliu (not far from Deer Creek Hot Springs, though this may have been Bankalnchi), and Uchiyingetau (see above). Wuchamni, Wikchamni, or Wikchomni (on Kaweah River and the adjacent hills). Yokod or Yokol (west of the latter and south of Kaweah River), their principal village being on a flat near Kaweah Railroad Station, and on the south side of Kaweah River, north of Exeter. Gawia or Kawia (on the north side of Kaweah River), including a settlement on the north side of Kaweah River and Ghidepuish (at Calvin Hill on Big Dry or Rattlesnake Creek). Kings River Group: Choinimni (on Kings River), including the village of Tishechu (on the south side of Kings River at the mouth of Mill Creek). Michahai (on Mill Creek), including the village of Hehshinau (on the north side of the stream on a flat at the foot of the pine covered ridge). Chukaimina (in Squaw Valley on a small southern affluent of Mill Creek), including the villages of Dochiu (at the north side of the valley), and Mashtinau (on the east side of the valley). Toihicha (below the Choinimni on the north side of Kings River), including the villages of Tanaiu (at Hughes Creek), and Bochiptau (location uncertain). Aiticha (farther down Kings River on the south side), including the village of K'ipayu (somewhat nearer Centerville than to Tishechu). Kocheyali (location and even existence uncertain as the name is given as a synonym for the last). Gashowu (on Big Dry Creek and Little Dry Creek), including the villages of Pohoniu (below Letcher on Big Dry Creek), Yokau (on Auberry Valley on Little Dry Creek), and Ochopou (possibly belonging to the Kechayi). Northern Group of the Foothill Division: Toltichi (the Yokuts tribe farthest up the San Joaquin, possibly Mono), including the village of Tsopotipau (at the electric power site on the large bend of the river below the entrance of the North Fork). Kechayi (holding the south bank of the San Joaquin for some miles above Millerton), including Kochoyu and Kowichkowicho (farther up). Dumna (on the north side of the San Joaquin about opposite the Kechayi), including the village of Dinishneu (at Belleville). Dalinchi (on Fine Gold Creek), including the villages of Moloneu (on this creek), and Dalinau (over the divide in the Coarse Gold Creek drainage). Chukchansi, Shukshansi, or Shukshanchi (on Coarse Gold Creek and the head of Cottonwood Creek), including the villages of Hapasau (near Fresno Flats), Chukchanau or Suksanau (well up on Fresno River), Tsuloniu (near the headwaters of Coarse Gold Creek), Kowoniu or Kohoniu (on Picayune Creek), Kataniu (the present Picayune rancheria), and Ch'eyau (on Cottonwood Creek near Bates). Southern Group of the Valley Division: Yauelmani (a strip of territory between Tejon Ranch on Paso Creek and Poso Creek), including the villages of Tinliu (below the Tejon Ranch House), Woilo (at Bakersfield), K'ono-ilkin (on Kern River), Shoko (on Kern River), but Shoko and K'ono-ilkin were shared, however, with the Paleuyami, so that it is not known which claimed ownership. Tsineuhiu (a short distance above Bakersfield on Kern River), and Kuyo (on a channel draining toward Kern Lake), and the people of this subdivision also lived at times at Hoschiu on White River and at Chididiknawasi (in the Deer Creek country). Koyeti (on lower Tule River from Porterville down), including the village of Chokowisho (Porterville). Choinok (probably on Deep and Outside Channels of Kaweah River), including the village of Ch'iuta (somewhere south of Tulare). Wo'lasi or Wo'ladji (at and below Farmersville, perhaps on Cameron channel). Telamni (at Visalia and Goshen), including the village of Waitatshulul (about 7 miles north of Tulare City). Wechihit (about Sanger on lower Kings River), including the village of Musahau (in the low bottoms opposite Sanger), and perhaps Wewayo (on Wahtoke Creek) although this latter was rather a kind of no-man's-land. Nutunutu (south of lower Kings River), including the villages of Chiau (a little south of Kingston), and Hibek'ia (location uncertain). Wimilchi (on the north side of lower Kings River), including the town of Ugona (southwest of Kingston). Wowol (on the southeastern shores of Tulare Lake), including the village of Sukuwutnu or Dulau (on an island off the eastern shore of the lake). Chunut (the Tulare Lake shore in the Kaweah Delta region), including the villages of Miketsiu and Chuntau which cannot be definitely located. Tachi (the tract from northern Tulare Lake and its inlet or outlet Fish Slough west to the Mount Diablo chain of the Coast Range), including the villages of Udjiu (downstream from Coalinga), Walna (where the western hills approach the lake), Colon (Huron), Chi (west of Heinlen), and Waiu (on Mussel Slough). Apiachi (north of Kings River and east of its outlet slough), including the village of Wohui (beyond Telweyit or Summit Lake, in the direction of Elkhorn). Northern Group of the Valley Division: Pitkachi or Pitkati (on the south side of the San Joaquin), including the villages of Kohuou (near Herndon or Sycamore), Weshiu (on a slough), and Gawachiu (still farther downstream). Wakichi (on the south side of San Joaquin River above the last), including the village of Holowichniu (near Millerton). Hoyima (on the north side of the San Joaquin opposite the Pitkachi), including the villages of K'eliutanau (on a creek entering the San Joaquin from the north), and Moyoliu (above the mouth of Little Dry Creek). Heuchi (on Fresno River at least on its north side), including the village of Ch'ekayu (on Fresno River 4 miles below Madera). Chauchila or Chaushila, or Toholo (on the several channels of Chauchilla River), including a village at Shehamniu (on Chowchilla River apparently at the edge of the plains some miles below Buchanan), and perhaps Halau (near Berenda), although this may have been Heuchi. Nupchinche or Noptinte (not located). Tawalimnu (probably on Tuolumne River). Lakisamni (perhaps about Takin rancheria at Dents of Knights Ferry on the Stanislaus River). Siakumne (location uncertain). Hannesuk (location uncertain). Coconoon (on Merced River). Chulamni (about Stockton, their territory extending at least some miles down the San Joaquin and up the Calaveras, and possibly as far west as Mount Diablo), including the villages of Yachik and Wana (both near Stockton). Population.- Kroeber (1932) estimates, 18,000 Yokuts in 1770 and 600 in 1910, based on the census report of 533. The census of 1930 returned 1,145. Yuki. Derived from the Wintun language and meaning "stranger," or "foe." Also called: Chu-mai-a, Pomo name. Noam-kekhl, Wintun name, meaning "west dwelling," or "western tribe." Connections.- The Yuki constituted an independent stock called Yukian. Location.- All the land lying in the drainage of Eel River above the North Fork, except for a stretch on South Eel River where the allied Huchmom were situated. Subdivisions Huititno'm, on the South Fork of Middle Eel River. Onkolukomno'm, from the forks of the South Eel River to their sources. Sukshaltatano'm, on the North Fork of Middle Eel River. Ta'no'm, on main Eel River. Ukomno'm, about Round Valley on the north side of Middle Fork. Utitno'm, about the forks made by the Middle and South Eel Rivers. Witukomno'm, on the south side of Middle Eel River, especially on its branches. Villages The following villages constituted a group in the northern portion of Round Valley west of the agency: Chochhanuk, Mameshishmo U'wit, Hake, Son, and there were still others whose names have been forgotten. There was another group in the northern part of Round Valley east of the agency and northeast over the hills to include Williams Valley: Pomo, in Round Valley, and, in successive order upstream in Williams Valley, Mo't-huyup, Kilikot, Lelhaksi, Nonakak, Yukuu-askal, Moyi. A third group was in the northeastern, corner of Round Valley and eastward to Middle Eel River, as follows: Titwa or Onans, Sonkash, Molkus, (all in Round Valley), and other villages east of the valley toward the river, whose names and sites are not known. The names of six subdivisions of the Ta'no'm are known: Kichilpitno'm, Kashansichno'm, Pomahanno'm, Mantno'm, Hanchhotno'm, and Ulsmolno'm, Probably these corresponded to the Ukonno'm groups. Names of places are: Kashansich, Pomahan, and Hanchhot. The following names belong to settlements or communities in various parts of the Yuki territory: Alniukino'm, in the northwest part of Round Valley. K'ilikuno'm, in the north or lower end of Eden Valley. Witukomno'm, a village near the head of Eden Valley. Sukano'm, Sonlanlno'm, Chakomno'm, and Chahelilno'm- names of parts of a group of unknown designation, between the Ukomno'm and the Witakomno'm. Liltamno'm and Nonlachno'm (perhaps synonymous), at Bluenose north or northeast of Round Valley. Ukachimno'm, in Poorman's Valley, northeast of Round Valley. Shipimanino'm and Kichilukomno'm, in Williams Valley; one of these may be the name of the second group given above, in Round Valley. Manlchalno'm, at one of the heads of Middle Eel River. Onkolukomno'm, in Gravelly Valley near Hullville. Hunkalich, a village near Hullville. Matamno'm, a group perhaps belonging to the Witukomno'm division. Population.- Kroeber (1932) estimates 2,000 Yuki in 1770; the census of 1910 returned 95, and that of 1930, 177, including the Yuki, Coast Yuki, and Huchnom. Yuki, Coast; or Ukhotno'm. (See Yuki.) The second name is applied to them by the interior Yuki, signifying "ocean people." Connections.- The Coast Yuki believe themselves to be an offshoot from the Huchnom but linguistic examination seems to place them near the Yuki. Location.- The Pacific coast from Cleone to a point halfway between Rockport and Usal and inland to the divide between the coast streams and Eel River. Villages These have not been recorded but the following places were probably inhabited: On the coast from north to south: On-chil-ka or On-chil-em, beyond Rockport. Es'im, at Rockport or Hardy Creek. Melhom-i'iken (Warren Creek). Hisimel-auhkem (the next creek). Lil-p'in-kem (De Haven). Shipep or Shipoi (Westport). K'etim, Chetman Gulch. Lilim, Mussel Rock. Ok'omet or Shipoi, Kabesilah. Methuyak-olselem (the creek north of Ten Mile River). Metkuyaki or Metknyakem (the mouth of Ten Mile River and also the river). Mil-hot-em (Cleone). Sus-mel-im, at the mouth of Pudding Crcck. Ol-hepech-kem (Noyo River). Nehkinmelem (Casper). Onp'otilkei (in Sherwood Valley). Ukemim (near Willits). Population.- Kroeber (1932) estimates that in 1770 and 1850 there were 500 Coast Yuki; the census of 1910 reported 15. (See Yuki.) Yuma. This tribe extended into the extreme southeastern corner of the State along the Colorado River. (See Arizona.) Yurok. Signifying "downstream" in the language of the neighboring Karok. Also called: Kiruhikwak, by the Shasta of Salmon River. Weitchpec, a name sometimes locally used, especially in Hupa and Karok territory, to which Weichpec is at present the nearest Yurok village. Connections.- The Yurok were originally regarded as an independent stock, later combined with the Wiyot into the Ritwan family, and still later identified by Kroeber and Sapir as a part of the great Algonquian family of the east. This last identification has not, however, met with entire acceptance. Location.- On the lower Klamath River and along the coast to the north and south of it. Subdivisions Two dialects differing but little from each other may be distinguished; one spoken in the southernmost coast section, the districts of the Big Lagoon and Trinidad; the other, in the remainder of Yurok territory. Villages Ayotl, above the mouth of Blue Creek. Erner, at the mouth of Blue Creek. Ertlerger, at the mouth of Trinity River on the west side. Espnu, on the coast north of Redwood Greek. Hergwer, on Stone Lagoon. Himetl, on the north side of Klamath River. Ho'pau, on Klamath River a few miles from the coast. Keihkem, 2 towns: (1) on Big Lagoon; (2) on the north side of Klamath River. Kenek, on the south side of Klamath River. Kenelkpul, on the south side of Klamath River, a short distance below Kenek. Kepel, on the north side of Klamath River. Ko'otep, on the north side of Klamath River. Lo'olego, on the north side of Klamath River above the mouth of the Trinity. Ma'ats, on Big Lagoon. Merip, on the north bank of Klamath River. Meta, on the south or west bank of Klamath River. Metsk on, at the mouth of Little River. Murekw, on the north bank of Klamath River. Nagetl, on the south or west side of Klamath River opposite the mouth of Blue Creek. Nohtskum, on the south bank of Klamath River. Omen, on the coast north of Klamath River. Omenhipur, on the coast north of Klamath River. Opyuweg, between Big Lagoon and the coast. Orau, on Redwood Creek. Orekw, on the south side of Redwood Creek at its mouth. Osegen, on the coast south of Klamath River. Oslokw, on thc east side of Big Lagoon. Otmekwor, on the north side of the mouth of Redwood Creek. Otsepor, on the south side of Klamath River below the mouth of Bluff Creek. Otwego, on the south side of Klamath River near its mouth. Pa'ar, near the north end of Big Lagoon. Pekwan, on the north side of Klamath River. Pekwututl, on the south side of Klamath River at the mouth of the Trinity. Rekwoi, on the north side of the mouth of Klamath River. Sa'a, on the south side of Klamath River. Sa'aitl, on the north side of Klamath River some miles above its mouth. Serper, on the north side of Klamath River. Sregon, on the north or east side of Klamath River. Tlemekwetl, on the north side of Klamnth River below Blue Creek. Tmeri, just below Requa. Tsahpekw, on the west side of Stone Lagoon. Tsetskwi, on the north or east side of Klamath River. Tsotskwi, near the south end of Stone Lagoon. Tsurau, near Trinidad. Turip, on the south side of Klamath River a few miles from the coast. Wa'asel, on the north side of Klamath River. Wahsekw, on the north or east side of Klamath River below Weitchpeg. Weitspus, opposite the mouth of Trinity River. Wetlkwau, on the south side of the mouth of Klamath River. Wohkel, on the south side of Klamath River a short distance above its mouth. Wohkero, on the north side of Klamath River. Wohtek, close to the preceding. Yohter, on the south or west side of Klamath River. Population.- Kroeber (1932) estimates 2,500 Yurok in 1770; the census of 1910 returned 668, and that of 1930, 471.
The Indian Tribes of North America by John R. Swanton Apache. A number of the Apache bands extended their raids from time to time over the territory of what is now Colorado, but only one of them, the Jicarilla, may be said to have been permanent occupants of any part of the State within the historic period. This tribe is considered under the name Jicarilla below; for an account of the other Apache tribes except the Lipan, see New Mexico. The Lipan are treated under Texas. Arapaho. The Arapaho hunted and warred over parts of eastern Colorado. (See Wyoming.) Bannock. This tribe and the Shoshoni roamed over the extreme northwestern corner of the State. (See Idaho.) Cheyenne. The same may be said of the Cheyenne as of the Arapaho. (See South Dakota.) Comanche. Like the Arapaho and Cheyenne, this tribe hunted and warred in the eastern parts of the State. (See Texas.) Jicarilla. A Mexican Spanish word, meaning "little basket," given to the tribe on account of the expertness of Jicarilla women in making baskets. Also called: Be'-xai, or Pex'-ge, Navaho name. Kinya-inde, Mescalero name. Keop-tagui, Kiowa name, signifying "mountain Apache." Pi'-ke-e-wai-i-ne, Picuris name. Tan-nah-shis-en, by Yarrow (1879) and signifying "men of the woodland." Tashi'ne, Mescalero name. Tinde, own name. Tu-sa-be', Tesuque name Connections - The Jicarilla were one of the so-called Apache tribes, all of which belonged to the great Athapascan linguistic stock, but with the Lipan (see Texas) constituted a group distinct from the Apache proper. (See New Mexico.) Location - Within historic times the homes of the Jicarilla have been in southeastern Colorado and northern New Mexico, though they have ranged into the adjacent parts of Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas. Subdivisions Mooney (1928) gives the following: Apatsiltlizhihi, who claim the district of Mora, N. Mex. Dachizhozhin, original home around the present Jicarilla Reservation, N. Mex. Golkahin, claiming a former home south of Taos Pueblo, N. Mex. Ketsilind, claiming a former home south of Taos Pueblo, N. Mex. Saitinde, claiming the vicinity of present Espanola, N. Mex., as their original home. History - There is little doubt that the Jicarilla traveled southward at no very remote period from among the Athapascan tribes in northwestern Canada, very likely by way of the eastern flanks of the Rocky Mountains. They were probably among the Querechos met by Coronado in 1540-42, the same people known to the later Spanish explorers as Vaqueros. They first received mention under their own name early in the eighteenth century. In 1733 a Spanish mission was established for them near Taos, N. Mex., but it did not last long, and their relations with the Spaniards were generally hostile. In 1853 the governor of New Mexico induced 250 of the tribe to settle on the Puerco River, but failure to ratify the treaty he had made with them caused them to go on the warpath, and they continued hostile until their defeat by United States troops in 1854. In 1870 they resided on the Maxwell grant in northeastern New Mexico, but the sale of it necessitated their removal. In 1872 and again in 1873 attempts were made to move them to Fort Stanton, but most of them were permitted to go to the Tierra Amarilla, on the northern confines of the territory, on a reservation of 900 square miles set aside in 1874. Their annuities having been suspended in 1878 on account of their refusal to move southward in accordance with an Act of Congress of that year, they resorted to thieving. In 1880 thc Act of 1878 was repealed, and a new reservation was set aside on the Navajo River, to which they were removed. Here they remained until 1883, when they were transferred to Fort Stanton. On February 11, 1887, however, a reservation was set aside for them in the Tierra Amarilla region by Executive Order. They removed to this territory and there they have now been allotted land in severalty. Population - Mooney (1928) estimated that there were about 800 Jicarilla in 1845. In 1905 they numbered 795; according to the Census of 1910, there were 694; the Report of the United States Indian Office for 1923 gave 608, and that for 1937, 714. Connection in which they have become noted - The name Jicarilla is given to mountains and a post village in Lincoln County, N. Mex. Kiowa. Like the Arapaho, Cheyenne, and Comanche, the Kiowa formerly hunted and warred across parts of eastern Colorado. (See Oklahoma.) Kiowa Apache. This tribe always accompanied the Kiowa. (See Oklahoma.) Navaho. The Navaho lived just south of the Colorado boundary, entering that State only occasionally. (See New Mexico.) Pueblos. Most of the Pueblo tribes trace their origin to some place in the north and there is no doubt that the ancestors of many of them lived in what are now the pueblo and cliff ruins of Colorado. In historic times the principal dealings of Colorado Indians with the Pueblos have been with the Pueblo of Taos, which was once a trading point of importance. Many of its people intermarried with the Ute. (See New Mexico.) Shoshoni. Together with the Bannock, the Shoshoni roamed over the extreme northwestern part of Colorado. (See Idaho.) Ute. The Ute formerly occupied the entire central and western portions of Colorado. (See Utah.)
The Indian Tribes of North America by John R. Swanton Mahican. The northwestern corner of Litchfield County was occupied by the Wawyachtonoc, a tribe of the Mahican Confederacy of the upper Hudson, though their main seats were in Columbia and Dutchess Counties, N. Y. (See New York.) Mohegan. The name means "wolf." They are not to be confused with the Mahican. Also called: River Indians. Seaside People. Unkus [Uncas] Indians, from the name of their chief. Upland Indians. Connections.- The Mohegan belonged to the Algonquian linguistic stock and spoke a y-dialect closely related to Pequot. Location.- The Mohegan originally occupied most of the upper valley of the Thames and its branches. Later they claimed authority over some of the Nipmuc and the Connecticut River tribes, and in the old Pequot territory. (See also New York.) Villages Ashowat, between Amston and Federal. Catantaquck, near the head of Pachaug River. Checapscaddock, southeast of the mouth of Shetucket River in the town of Preston. Kitemaug, on the west wide of Thames River between Uncasville and Massapeag. Mamaquaog, on Natchaug River northeast of Willimantic. Mashantackack, near Palmertown, town of Montville. Massapeag, at the place now so-called on the west side of Thames River. Mohegan, at the present town of Mohegan on the west side of Thames River. Moosup, at the present Moosup in the town of Plainfield. Nawhesetuck, on Fenton River north of Willimantic. Pachaug, at the present Pachaug in the town of Griswold. Paugwonk, near Gardiner Lake in the town of Salem. Pautexet, near the present Jewett City in the town of Griswold. Pigscomsuck, on the right bank of Quinebaug River near the present line between New London and Windham Counties. Poquechanneeg, near Lebanon. Poquechanock, near Trading Cove, town of Preston. Shantuck, on the west side of Thames River just north of Mohegan. Showtucket or Shetucket, near Lisbon in the fork of the Shetucket and Quinebaug Rivers. Wauregan, on the east side of Quinebaug River in the town of Plainfield. Willimantic, on the site of the present city of Willimantic. Yantic, at the present Yantic on Yantic River. History.- The Mohegan were probably a branch of the Mahican. Originally under Sassacus, chief of the Pequot, they afterward became independent and upon the destruction of the Pequot in 1637, Uncas, the Mohegan chief, became ruler also of the remaining Pequot and set up pretensions to territory north and west beyond his original borders. At the end of King Philip's War, the Mohegan were the only important tribe remaining in southern New England, but as the White settlements advanced they were reduced progressively both in territory and in numbers. Many joined the Scaticook, and in 1788 a still larger body united with the Brotherton in New York, where they formed the largest single element in the new settlement. The rest continued in their old town at Mohegan, where a remnant of mixed-bloods still survives. Population.- The number of Mohegan were estimated by Mooney (1928) at 2,200 in 1600; in 1643, including the remnant of the Pequot and perhaps other tribes, at between 2,000 and 2,500. In 1705 they numbered 750; in 1774, 206 were reported; in 1804, 84; in 1809, 69; in 1825, 300; in 1832, about 360; in 1910, 22. Connection in which they have become noted.- The Mohegan became celebrated on account of the services rendered the Whites by Uncas. Today their name is perpetuated in Mohegan, on Thames River, and the name of their chief in Uncasville on the same stream. There is a post village of this name in McDowell County, W. Va., and a Mohegan Lake in Westchester County, N. Y., but this is named after the Mahican. Niantic, Western. Regarding the name, see Niantic, Eastern, under Rhode Island. Connections.- These were the same as for the Eastern Niantic. (See Rhode Island.) Location.- On the seacoast from Niantic Bay to Connecticut River. Villages Niantic or Nehantucket, near the present town of Niantic. There was another near Old Lyme. History.- Originally the Western Niantic are thought to have constituted one tribe with the Eastern Niantic and to have been cut apart from them by the Pequot. They were nearly destroyed in the Pequot war and at its close (1637) were placed under the control of the Mohegan. About 1788 many joined the Brotherton Indians. A small village of Niantic was reported as existing near Danbury in 1809, but this perhaps contained remnants of the tribes of western Connecticut, although Speck (1928) found several Indians of mixed Niantic-Mohegan descent living with the Mohegan remnant, descendants of a pure-blood Niantic woman from the mouth of Niantic River. Population. The Western Niantic population was estimated by Mooney (1928) at 600 in 1600; there were about 100 in 1638; 85 in 1761. Connection in which they have become noted.- The name of the Western Niantic is perpetuated in Niantic village, Niantic River, and Niantic Bay, in New London County. Post villages in Macon County, Ill., and Montgomery County, Pa., bear the name Niantic. Nipmuc. Some bands of this tribe extended into the northeastern part of the State. (See Massachusetts.) Pequot. The name means, according to Trumbull (1818), "destroyers." Also called: Sickenames, in a Dutch deed quoted by Ruttenber (1872). Connections.- The Pequot belonged to the Algonquian linguistic stock, and spoke a y-dialect closely related to Mohegan. Location.- The Pequot occupied the coast of New London County from Niantic River nearly to the Rhode Island State line. Until driven out by the Narraganset, they extended into Rhode Island as far as Wecapaug River. (See also Rhode Island.) Villages Asupsuck, in the interior of the town of Stonington. Aukumbumsk or Awcumbuck, in the center of the Pequot country near Gales Ferry. Aushpook, at Stonington. Cosattuck, probably near Stonington. Cuppanaugunnit, probably in New London County. Mangunckakuck, probably on Thames River below Mohegan. Maushantuxet, at Ledyard. Mystlc, near West Mystic on the west side of Mystic River. Monhunganuck, near Beach Pond in the town of Voluntonn. Nameaug, near New London. Noank, at the present place of that name. Oneco, at the place of that name in the town of Sterling. Paupattokshick, on the lower course of Thames River. Pawcatuck, probably on the river of the same name, Washington County, R. I. Pequotauk, near New London. Poquonock, inland from Popuonock Bridge. Sauquonckackock, on the west side of Thames River below Mohegan. Shenecosset, near Midway in the town of Groton. Tatuppequauog, on the Thames River below Mohegan. Weinshauks, near Groton. Wequetequock, on the east side of the river of the same name. History.- The Pequot and the Mohegan arc supposed to have been invaders from the direction of Hudson River. At the period of first White contact, the Pequot were war-like and greatly dreaded by their neighbors. They and the Mohegan were jointly ruled by Sassacus until the revolt of Uncas, the Mohegan chief. (See Mohegan.) About 1635 the Narraganset drove them from a corner of the present Rhode Island which they had previously held, and 2 years later the murder of a trader who had treated some Indians harshly involved the Pequot in war with the Whites. At that time their chief controlled 26 subordinate chiefs, claimed authority over all Connecticut east of Connecticut River, and on the coast as far west as New Haven or Guilford, as well as all of Long Island except the extreme western end. Through the influence of Roger Williams, the English secured the assistance or neutrality of the surrounding tribes. Next they surprised and destroyed the principal Pequot fort near Mystic River along with 600 Indians of all ages and both sexes, and this disaster crippled the tribe so much that, after a few desperate attempts at further resistance, they determined to separate into small parties and abandon the country (1637). Sassacus and a considerable body of followers were intercepted near Fairfield while trying to escape to the Mohawk and almost all were killed or captured. Those who surrendered were divided among the Mohegan, Narraganset, and Niantic, and their territory passed under the authority of Uncas. Their Indian overlords treated them so harshly, however, that they were taken out of their hands by the colonists in 1655 and settled in two villages near Mystic River, where some of their descendants still live. Numbers removed to other places- Long Island, New Haven, the Nipmuc country, and elsewhere- while many were kept as slaves among the English in New England or sent to the West Indies. Population.- The Pequot population was estimated by Mooney (1928) at 2,200 in 1600; in 1637, immediately after the Pequot war, there were said to be 1,950, but the figure is probably too high. In 1674 the Pequot in their old territory numbered about 1,500; in 1762, 140. In 1832 there were said to be about 40 mixed- bloods, but the census of 1910 gave 66, of whom 49 were in Connecticut and 17 in Massachusetts. Connection in which they have become noted.- The Pequot are remembered principally on account of the bitter and, to them, disastrous war related above. The name is borne by a post village in Crow Wing County, Minn. Wappinger. The valley of Connecticut River was the home of a number of bands which might be called Mattabesec after the name of the most important of them, and this in turn was a part of the Wappinger. (See New York.)
- The Indian Tribes of North America by John R. Swanton Delaware. The Unalachtigo division of the Delaware occupied all of the northern parts of this State when it was first visited by Europeans. (See New Jersey.) Nanticoke. Bodies of Indians classed under this general heading extended into the southern and western sections. Unalachtigo and Nanticoke are two forms of the same word though, as differentiated, they have been applied to distinct tribes. (See Maryland.)