Alabama

		The Indian Tribes of North America by John R. Swanton

	  
Abihka
. see Creek Confederacy and Muskogee.

        
Alabama
. Perhaps connected with the native word "albina," meaning
        "to camp," or alba amo, "weed gatherer," referring to the black
        drink. Also called:

        Ma'-mo an-ya-di, or Ma'-mo han-ya, by the Biloxi.
        Oke-choy-atte, given by Schoolcraft (1851-57), the name of
        an Alabama town, Oktcaiutci.

        Connections.- The Alabama language belonged to the southern
        division of the Muskhogean stock, and was perhaps connected with
        the tongues of the Muklasa and Tuskegee, which have not been
        preserved. It was closely related to Koasati and more remotely to
        Hitchiti and Choctaw.

        Location.- The principal historic seat of this tribe was on the
        upper course of Alabama River. (See also Florida, Louisiana,
        Oklahoma, and Texas.)

					Subdivisions

        The Tawasa and Pawokti, which later formed two Alabama towns,
        were originally independent tribes (See under Florida), though
        the former, at least, was not properly Alabama. The same may have
        been true of some other Alabama towns, though we have no proof of
        the fact.

				Villages - Besides the above:

        Autauga, on the north bank of Alabama River about the mouth of
        Autauga Creek in Autauga County.

        Kanteati, on Alabama River about 3 miles above Montgomery and on
        the same side.

        Nitabauritz, on the north side of Alabama River west of the
        confluence of the Alabama and Cahawba Rivers in Dallas County.

        Okchayutci, in Benjamin Hawkins' time (about 1800) on the cast
        bank of Coosa River between Tuakegee and the Muskogee town of
        Otciapofa. (See Hawkins, 1848, 1916.)

        Wetumpka, a branch village reported in 1761.

        History.- Native tradition assigns the origin of the Alabama to a
        point at the confluence of Alabama and Tombigbee Rivers, but we
        seem to hear of the tribe first historically in what is now
        northern Mississippi west of the Chickasaw country. This is in
        the narratives of De Soto's chroniclers, which, however, do not
        altogether agree, since one writer speaks of a province of the
        name, two others bestow the designation upon a small village, and
        only Garcilaso (1723), the least reliable, gives the title Fort
        Alibamo to a stockade- west of the village above mentioned- where
        the Spaniards had a severe combat. While this stockade was
        probably held by Alabama Indians, there is no certainty that it
        was. The next we hear of the tribe it is in its historic seats
        above given. After the French had established themselves at
        Mobile they became embroiled in some small affrays between the
        Alabama and Mobile Indians, but peace was presently established
        and thereafter the French and Alabama remained good friends as
        long as French rule continued. This friendship was cemented in
        1717 by the establishment of Fort Toulouse in the Alabama country
        and the admission among them of one, or probably two, refugee
        tribes, the Tawasa and Pawokti. (See Florida.) About 1763 a
        movement toward the west began on the part of those Indians who
        had become accustomed to French rule. Some Alabama joined the
        Seminole in Florida. Others accompanied the Koasati to Tombigbee
        River but soon returned to their own country. Still another body
        went to Louisiana and settled on the banks of the Mississippi
        River, where they were probably joined from time to time by more.
        Later they advanced further toward the west and some are still
        scattered in St. Landry and Calcasieu Parishes, but the greatest
        single body finally reached Polk County, Tex., where they occupy
        a piece of land set aside for them by the State. Those who
        remained behind took a very prominent part in the Creek-American
        War and lost all their land by the treaty of Fort Jackson, 1814,
        being obliged to make new settlements between the Coosa and
        Tallapoosa. They accompanied the rest of the Creeks to Oklahoma,
        and their descendants are to he found there today, principally
        about a little station bearing the name just south of Weleetka.

        Population.- In 1702 Iberville (in Margry, 1875-86, vol. 4, p.
        514) estimated that there were 400 families of Alabama in two
        villages, and the English census of 1715 gives 214 men and a
        total population of 770 in four villages. These figures must have
        been exclusive of the Tawasa and Pawokti, which subsequent
        estimates include. About 1730-40 there is an estimate of 400 men
        in six towns. In 1792 the number of Alabama men is given as 60,
        exclusive of 60 Tawasa, but as this last included Kantcati the
        actual proportion of true Alabama was considerably greater.
        Hawkins, in 1799, estimated 80 gunmen in four Alabama towns,
        including Tawasa and Pawokti, but he does not include the
        population of Okchaiyutci. (See Hawkins, 1848.) In 1832 only two
        towns are entered which may be safely set down as Alabama, Tawasa
        and Autauga, and these had a population of 321 besides 21 slaves.
        The later figures given above do not include those Alabama who
        had moved to Louisiana. In 1805 Sibley (1832) states there were
        two villages in Louisiana with 70 men; in 1917 Morse (1822) gives
        160 Alabama all told in Texas, but this is probably short of the
        truth. In 1882 the United States Indian Office reported 290
        Alabama, Koasati, and Muskogee in Texas, the larger number of
        whom were probably Alabama. In 1900 the figure is raised to 470.
        In 1910 a special agent from the Indian Office reported 192
        Alabama alone. The census of 1910 gave 187 in Texas and 111 in
        Louisiana, a total of 298. The 176 "Creek" Indians returned from
        Polk County, Tex., in 1930, were mainly Alabama. The number of
        Alabama in Oklahoma has never been separately reported.

        Connection in which they have become noted.- The Alabama attained
        early literary fame from Garcilaso de la Vega's (1723)
        description of the storming of "Fort Allbamo." Their later
        notoriety has rested upon the fact that their name became
        attached to Alabama River, and still more call its subsequent
        adoption by the State of Alabama. A railroad station in Oklahoma
        is named after them, and the term has been applied to places in
        Genesee County, N. Y., and in Polk County, Wis. There is an
        Alabama City in Stowah County, Ala., and Alabama in Madison
        County, Ark.

        
Apalachee
. A part of this tribe lived for a time among the Lower
        Creeks and perhaps in this State. Another section settled near
        Mobile and remained there until West Florida was ceded to Great
        Britain when they crossed the Mississippi. A few seem to have
        joined the Creeks and migrated with them to Oklahoma. (See
        Florida.)

        
Apalachicola
. Very early this tribe lived on the Apalachicola and
        Chattahoochee Rivers, partly in Alabama. Sometime after 1715 they
        settled in Russell County, on the Chattahoochee River where they
        occupied at least two different sites before removing with the
        rest of the Creeks to the other side of the Mississippi. (See
        Georgia.)

        
Atasi
. A division or subtribe of the Muskogee (q. v.).

        
Chatot
. This tribe settled near Mobile after having been driven
        from Florida and moved to Louisiana about the same time as the
        Apalachee. (See Florida.)

        
Cherokee
. In the latter part of the eighteenth century some
        Cherokee worked their way down the Tennessee River is far as
        Muscle Shoals, constituting the Chickamauga band. They had
        settlements at Turkeytown on the Coosa, Willstown on Wills Creek,
        and Coldwater near Tuscumbia, occupied jointly with the Creeks
        and destroyed by the Whites in 1787. All of their Alabama
        territory was surrendered in treaties made between 1807 and 1835.
        (See Tennessee.)

        
Chickasaw
. The Chickasaw had a few settlements in northwestern
        Alabama, part of which State was within their hunting
        territories. At one time they also had a town called Ooe-asa
        (Wiaca) among the Upper Creeks. (See Mississippi.)

        
Choctaw
. This tribe hunted over and occupied, at least
        temporarily, parts of southwestern Alabama beyond the Tombigbee.
        (See Mississippi.)

        
Creek Confederacy
. This name is given to a loose organization
        which constituted the principal political element in the
        territory of the present States of Georgia and Alabama from very
        early times probably as far back as the period of De Soto. It was
        built around a dominant tribe, or rather a group of dominant
        tribes, called Muskogee. The name Creek early became attached to
        these people because when they were first known to the Carolina
        colonists and for a considerable period afterward the body of
        them which the latter knew best was living upon a river, the
        present Ocmulgee, called by Europeans "Ocheese Creek." The Creeks
        were early divided geographically into two parts, one called
        Upper Creeks, on the Coosa and Tallapoosa Rivers; the other, the
        Lower Creeks, on the lower Chattahoochee and Ocmulgee. The former
        were also divided at times into the Coosa branch or Abihka and
        the Tallapoosa branch and the two were called Upper and Middle
        Creeks respectively. Bartram (1792) tends to confuse the student
        by denominating all of the true Creeks "Upper Creeks" and the
        Seminole "Lower Creeks." The dominant Muskogee gradually gathered
        about them- and to a certain extent under them- the Apalachicola,
        Hitchiti, Okmulgee, Sawokli, Chiaha, Osochi, Yuchi, Alabama,
        Tawasa, Pawokti, Muklasa, Koasati, Tuskegee, a part of the
        Shawnee, and for a time some Yamasee, not counting broken bands
        and families from various quarters. The first seven of the above
        here for the most part among the Lower Creeks, the remainder with
        the Upper Creeks. (For further information, see the separate
        tribal names under Alabama, Georgia, and Florida.)

        
Eufaula
. A division or subtribe of the Muskogee (q. v.).

        
Fus-hatchee
. A division of the Muskogee (q. v.).

        
Hilibi
. A division or subtribe of the Muskogee (q. v.).

        
Hitchiti
. This tribe lived for considerable period close to, and
        at times within, the present territory of Alabama along its
        southeastern margin. (See Georgia.)

        
Kan-hatki
. A division of the Muskogee (q. v.).

        
Kealedji
. A division of the Muskogee (q. v.).

        
Koasati
. Meaning unknown; often given as Coosawda and Coushatta,
        and sometimes abbreviated to Shati.

        Connections.- They belonged to the southern section of the
        Muskhogean linguistic group, and were particularly close to the
        Alabama.

        Location.- The historic location of the Koasati was just below
        the junction of the Coosa and Tallapoosa Rivers to form the
        Alabama and on the east side of the latter, where Coosada Creek
        and Station still bear the name. (See also Florida, Mississippi,
        Louisiana, Texas, and Oklahoma.)

						Villages

        Two Koasati towns are mentioned as having existed in very early
        times, one of which may have been the Kaskinampo. (See
        Tennessee.) At a later period a town known as Wetumpka on the
        east bank of Coosa River, in Elmore County, near the fall seems
        to have been occupied by Koasati Indians. During part of its
        existence Wetumpka was divided into two settlements, Big Wetumpka
        on the site of the modern town of the same name, and Little
        Wetumpka above the falls of Coosa.

        History.- It is probable that from about 1600 until well along in 
        the seventeenth century, perhaps to its very close, the Koasnti 
        lived upon Tennessee River. There is good reason to think that 
        they are the Coste, Acoste, or Costehe of De Soto's chroniclers 
        whose principal village was upon an island in the river, and in 
        all probability this was what is now known as Pine Island. There 
        is also a bare mention of them in the narrative of Pardo's 
        expedition of 1567 inland from Santa Elena, and judging by the 
        entries made upon maps published early in the eighteenth century 
        this tribe seems to have occupied the same position near where the 
        French and English made their settlements in the Southeast. About 
        that time they were probably joined by the related Kaskinampo. Not 
        long after they had become known to the Whites, a large part of 
        the Koasati migrated south and established themselves at the point 
        mentioned above. A portion seems to have remained behind for we 
        find a village called Coosada at Larkin's Landing in Jackson 
        County at a much later date. The main body continued with the 
        Upper Creeks until shortly after France ceded all of her 
        territories east of the Mississippi to England in 1763, when a 
        large part moved to Tombigbee River. These soon returned to their 
        former position, but about 1795 another part crossed the 
        Mississippi and settled on Red River. Soon afterward they seem to 
        have split up, some continuing on the Red River others went to the 
        Sabine and beyond to the Neches and Trinity Rivers, Tex. At a 
        later date a few Texas bands united with the Alabama in Polk 
        County, where their descendants still live, but most returned to 
        Louisiana and gathered into one neighborhood northeast of Kinder, 
        La. The greater part of the Koasati who remained in Alabama 
        accompanied the Creeks to Oklahoma, where a few are still to be 
        found. Previous to this removal, some appear to have gone to 
        Florida to mix in their lot with the Seminole. 

        Population.- The earliest estimates of the Alabama Indians
        probably included the Koasati. In 1750 they are given 50 men; in
        1760, 150 men. Marbury (1792) credits them with 130 men. In 1832,
        after the Louisiana branch had split off, those who remained
        numbered 82 and this is the last separate enumeration we have.
        Sibley (1806) on native authority gives 200 hunters in the
        Louisiana bands; in 1814 Sehermerhorn estimates that there were
        600 on the Sabine; in 1817 Morse places the total Koasati
        population in Louisiana and Texas  640; in 1829 Porter puts it
        at 180; in 1850 Bollaert gives the number of men in the two
        Koasati towns on Trinity River as 500.

             In 1882 the United States Indian Office reported 290
        Alabama, Koasati, and Muskogee in Texas, but the Census of 1900
        raised this to 470. The Census of 1910 returned 11 Koasati from
        Texas, 85 from Louisiana, and 2 from Nebraska; those in Oklahoma
        were not enumerated separately from the other Creeks. The 134
        "Creeks" returned from Louisiana in 1930 were mainly Koasati.

        Connection in which they have become noted.- Coonsada, a post
        village in Elmore County, Ala., near the old Koasati town, and
        Coushatta, the capital of Red River Parish, La, preserve the name
        of the Koasati.

        
Kolomi
. A division of the Muskogee (q. v.).

        
Mobile
. Meaning unknown, but Halbert (1901) suggests that it may
        be from Choctaw moeli, "to paddle," since Mobile is pronounced
        moila by the Indians. It is the Mabila, Mauilla, Mavila, or
        Mauvila of the De Soto chroniclers.

        Connections. The language of the tribe was closely connected with
        that of the Choctaw and gave its name to a trade jargon based
        upon Choctaw or Chickasaw.

        Location.- When the French settled the seacoast of Alabama the
        Mobile were living on the west side of Mobile River a few miles
        below the junction of the Alabama and Tombigbee.

        History.- When they make their first appearance in history in
        1540 the Mobile were between the Alabama and Tombigbee Rivers,
        and on the east side of the former. Their chief, Tuscaloosa, was
        a very tall and commanding Indian with great influence throughout
        the surrounding, country. He inspired his people to attack; the
        invading Spaniards and a terrific battle was fought October 18,
        1540, for the possession of one of his fortified towns (Mabila),
        which the Spaniards carried with heavy losses to themselves in
        killed and wounded, while of the Indians 2,500 or more fell. It
        is probable that the village of Nanipacna, through which a force
        of Spaniards of the De Luna colony passed in 1559, was occupied
        by some of the survivors of this tribe. At a later date they may
        have settled near Gees Rend of the Alabama River, in Wilcox
        County, because early French maps give a village site there which
        they call "Vieux Mobiliens." A Spanish letter of 1686 speaks of
        them as at war with the Peusacola tribe. When the French came
        into the country, the Mobile were, as stated above, settled not
        far below the junction of the Tombigbee and Alabama. After a post
        had been established on the spot where Mobile stands today, the
        Mobile Indians moved down nearer to it and remained there until
        about the time when the English obtained possession of the
        country. They do not appear to have gone to Louisiana like so
        many of the smaller tribes about them and were probably absorbed
        in the Choctaw Nation.

        Population.- After allowing for all exaggerations, the number of
        Mobile Indians when De Soto fought with them must have been very
        considerable, perhaps 6,000 to 7,000. Mooney (1928) estimates
        2,000 Mobile and Tohome in 1650, over a hundred years after the
        great battle. In 1702 Iberville states that this tribe and the
        Tohome together embraced about 350 warriors; in 1725-26 Bienville
        (1932, vol. 3, p. 536), gives 60 for the Mobile alone, but in
        1730 Regis de Rouillet (1732) cuts this in half. In 1758 De
        Kerlerec (1907) estimates the number of warriors among the
        Mobile, Tohome, and Naniaba at about 100.

        Connection in which they have become noted.- The Mobile have
        attained a fame altogether beyond anything which their later
        numerical importance would warrant; (1) on account of the
        desperate resistance which they offered to De Soto's forces, and
        (2) from the important Alabama city to which they gave their
        name. There is a place called Mobile in Maricopa County, Ariz.

        
Muklasa
. Meaning in Alabama and Choctaw, "friends," or "people of
        one nation."

        Connections.- Since the Muklasa did not speak Muskogee and their
        name is from the Koasati, Alabama, or Choctaw language, and since
        they were near neighbors of the two former, it is evident that
        they were connected with one or the other of them.

        Location.- On the south bank of Tallapoosa River in Montgomery
        County. (See Florida and Oklahoma.)

        History.- When we first hear of the Muklasa in 1675 they were in
        the position above given and remained there until the end of the
        Creek-American War, when they are said to have emigrated to
        Florida in a body. Nothing is heard of them afterward, however,
        and although Gatschet (1884) states that there was a town of the
        name in the Creek Nation in the west in his time, I could learn
        nothing about it when I visited the Creeks in 1911-12.

        Population.- In 1760 the Muklasa are said to have had 50 men, in
        1761, 30, and in 1792, 30. These are the only figures available
        regarding their numbers.

        
Muskogee
. Meaning unknown, but perhaps originally from Shawnee
        and having reference to swampy ground. To this tribe the name
        Creeks was ordinarily applied. Also called:

        Ani'-Gu'sa, by the Cherokee, meaning "Coosa people," after
        an ancient and famous town on Coosa River.
        Ku-u'sha, by the Wyandot.
        Ochesee, by the Hitchiti.
        Sko'-ki han-ya, by the Biloxi.

        Connections.- The Muskogee language constitutes one division of
        the Muskhogean tongues proper, that which I call Northern.

        Location.- From the earliest times of which we have any record
        these people seem to have had towns all the way from the Atlantic
        coast of Georgia and the neighborhood of Savannah River to
        central Alabama. (See also Florida, Louisiana, Oklahoma,
        Tennessee, and Texas.)

                        Subdivisions and Villages

        It is difficult to separate major divisions of the Muskogee from
        towns and towns from villages, but there were certainly several
        distinct Muskogee tribes at a very early period. The following
        subdivisional classification is perhaps as good as any:

        Abihka (in St. Clair, Calhoun, and Talladega Counties):

        Abihka-in-the-west, a late branch of Abihka in the western part
        of the Creek Nation, Okla.

        Abihkutci, on Tallassee Hatchee Creek, Talladega County, on the
        right bank 5 miles from Coosa River.

        Kan-tcati, on or near Chocolocko, or Choccolocco, Creek and
        probably not far from the present "Conchardee."

        Kayomalgi, possibly settled by Shawnee or Chickasaw, probably
        near Sylacauga, Talladega County.

        Lun-ham-ga, location unknown.

        Talladega, on Talladega Creek, Talladega County.

        Tcahki lako, on Choccolocco Creek in Talladega or Calhoun County.

        Atasi: Location (1) on the upper Ocmulgee River, (2) on the
        Chattahoochee, (3) on the Tallapoosa in Tallapoosa County, (4) on
        the south side of the Tallapoosa in Macon County, and (5) on the
        north side near Calebee Creek in Elmore County.

        Coosa:

        Abihkutci, a division of Okfuskee, which apparently came into
        existence after the Creeks had removed to Oklahoma.

        Atcinaulga, on the west bank of Tallapoosa River in Randolph
        County.

        Big Tulsa, on the east bank of Tallapoosa River at the mouth of
        Ufaubee Creek in Tallapoosa County.

        Chatukchufaula, possibly identical with the last, on Nafape Creek
        or Tallapoosa River.

        Chuleocwhooatlee, on the left bank of Tallapoosa River, 11 miles
        below Nuyaka, in Tallapoosa County.

        Holitaiga, on Chattahoochee River in Troup County, Ga.

        Imukfa, on Emaufaw Creek in Tallapoosa County.

        Ipisagi, on Sandy Creek in Tallapoosa County.

        Kohamutkikatsa, location unknown.

        Little Tulsa, on the east side of Coosa River, 3 miles above the
        falls, Elmore County.

        Lutcapoga, perhaps near Loachapoka in Lee County, or on the upper
        Tallapoosa.

        Nafape, on a creek of the same name flowing into Ufaubee Creek.

        Okfuskee, location (1) at the mouth of Hillabee Creek, (2) at the
        mouth of Sand Creek, both in Tallapoosa County.

        Okfuskutci, (1) on Chattahoochee River in Troup County, Ca.; (2)
        on the upper Tallapoosa in Tallapoosa County, Ala.; (3) another
        town of the name or an earlier location of the first somewhere
        near the lower Tallapoosa.

        Old Coosa, near the junction of the Coosa and Tallapoosa Rivers.

        Otciapofa, on the east side of the Coosa River in Elmore County,
        just below the falls.

        Saoga-hatchee, on Saogahatchee Creek, in Tallapoosa or Lee County.

        Suka-ispoga, on the west bank of Tallapoosa River below the mouth
        of Hillibee Creek, in Tallapoosa County.

        Tallassehasee, on Tallassee Hatchee Creek in Talladega County.

        Tcahkilako, on Chattahoochee River near Franklin, Heard County,
        Ga.

        Tcatoksofka, seemingly a later name of the main Okfuskee town.

        Tcawokeln, 25 miles east northeast of the mouth of Upatoie Creek,
        probably near Chewacla Station, Lee County.

        Tculakonini, on Chattahoochee River in Troup County, Ga.

        Tohtogagi, on the west bank of Tallapoosa River, probably in
        Randolph County.

        Tukabahcheo Tallahassee, later called Talmuteasi, on the west
        side of Tallapoosa River in Tallapoosa County.

        Tukpafka, on Chattahoochee River in Heard County, Ga., later
        moved to Tallapoosa, settled on the left bank 11 miles above
        Okfuskee, Tallapoosa County, and renamed Nuyaka.

        Tulsa Canadian, a branch of Tulsa on the Canadian River, Okla.

        Tulsa Little River, a branch of Tulsa near Holdenville, Okla.

        Coweta (early location on the upper Ocmulgee, later on the west
        bank of Chattahoochee River in Russell County, Ala., opposite
        Columbus, Ga.):

        Coweta Tallahassee, later Likatcka or Broken Arrow, probably a
        former location of the bulk of the tribe, on the west bank of
        Chattahoochee River in Russell County, Ala.

        Katca tastanagi's Town "at Cho-lose-parp-kari."

        Settlements on "Hallewokke Yoaxarhatchee."

        Settlements on "Toosilkstorkee Hatchee."

        Settlements on "Warkeeche Hatchee."

        Wetumpka, a branch of the last on the main fork of Big Uchee
        Creek 12 miles northwest from the mother town, Coweta
        Tallahassee.

        Eufaula:

        A branch among the Seminole called Kan-tcati. (See Florida,
        Seminole.)

        A branch village of Eufaula hopai on a creek called
        "Chouokolohatchee."

        Eufaulahatchee or Eufaula Old Town, on Talladega Creek, also
        called Eufaula Creek, 15 miles from its mouth.

        Lower Eufaula or Eufaula hopai, above the mouth of Pataula Creek,
        in Clay County, Ga.

        Upper Eufaula, on the right bank of Tallapoosa River 5 miles
        below Okfuskee, in Tallapoosa County- at one time separated into
        Big Eufaula and Little Eufaula.

        Hilibi (at the junction of Hillabee and Bear Creeks, Tallapoosa
        County):

        Anetechapko, 10 miles above Hilibi on a branch of Hillabee Creek.

        Etcuseislaiga, on the left bank of Hillabee Creek, 4 miles below
        Hilibi.

        Kiteopataki, location unknown.

        Lanutciabala, on the northwest branch of Hillabee Creek, probably
        in Tallapoosa County.

        Little Hilibi, location unknown.

        Oktahasasi, on a creek of the name 2 miles below Hilibi.

        Holiwahali (on the north bank of Tallapoosa River in Elmore
        County):

        Laplako, on the south side of Tallapoosa in Montgomery County
        nearly opposite Holiwahali.

        Kasihta (best-known location on the east bank of Chattahoochee
        River, at the junction of Upatoie Creek in Chattahoochee County,
        Ga.):

        Apatai, in the forks of Upatoie and Pine Knob Creeks in Muskogee
        County, Ga.

        Salenojuh, on Flint River 8 miles below Aupiogee Creek (?).

        Settlements bearing the same name (Kasihta).

        Settlements on Chowockeleehatchee Creek, Ala.

        Settlements on Little Uchee Creek, Ala.

        Settlements on "Tolarnulkar Hatchee."

        Sicharlitcha, location unknown.

        Tallassee Town, on Opillikee Hatchee, perhaps in Schley or Macon
        Counties, Ga.

        Tuckabatchee Harjo's Town, on Osenubba Hatchee, a west branch of
        the Chattahoochee, Ala.

        Tuskehenehaw Chooley's Town, near West Point, Troup County, Ga.

        Okchai:

        Asilanabi, on Yellow Leaf Creek in Shelby County.

        Lalogalga, or Fish Pond, on a branch of Elkhatchee Creek, 14
        miles up, in Tallapoosa or Coosa County.

        Okchai, location (1) on the east side of the lower Coosa in
        Elmore County; (2) in the southeastern part of Coosa County, on a
        creek bearing their name, which flowed into Kialaga Creek.

        Potcashatchee, probably a branch of this on the upper course of
        Hatchet Creek in Clay or Coosa County.

        Tcahki lako, on Chattahoochee River.

        Tulsa hatchee, location uncertain.

        Pakana:

        Pakan Tallahassee, on Hatchet Creek, Coosa County.

        The Pakana who settled near Fort Toulouse at the junction of
        Coosa and Tallapoosa Rivers and afterward moved to Louisiana,
        living on Calcasieu River for a while.

        Tukabahchee (in the sharp angle made where Tallapoosa River turns
        west in Elmore County):

        Only one small out village is mentioned, Wihili, location
        unknown.

        Wakokai (on the middle course of Hatchet Creek in Coosa County):

        Sakapadai, probably on Sacapartoy, a branch of Hatchet Creek,
        Coosa County.

        Tukpafks, on Hatchet Creek, Coosa County.

        Wiogufki, on Weogufka Creek in Coosa County.

        Besides the Muskogee tribes noted above, there were the
        following:

        Fus-hatchee. Not a major division; on the north bank of
        Tallapoosa River in Elmore County, 2 miles below Holiwahali. They
        may have been related to the Holiwahali.

        Kan-hatki. Not a major division; just below Kolomi on the north
        bank of Tallapoosa River in Elmore County. Possibly related to
        the Holiwahali.

        Kealedji. Not a primary division; perhaps a branch of
        Tukabahchee; location (1) on the Ocmulgee, (2) on Kialaga Creek
        in Elmore County or Tallapoosa County, having one branch
        Hatcheetcaba, west of Kealedji, probably in Elmore County.

        Kolomi. Probably not a major division; location (1) on the
        Ocmulgee, (2) on the middle Chattahoochee in Russell County,
        Alb., (3) on the north side of the lower Tallapoosa in Elmore
        County. They may have been related to the Holiwahali.

        Wiwohka. Not a primary division but a late town; location (1)
        near the mouth of Hatchet Creek in Coosa County, (2) on Weoka
        Creek in Elmore County.

        In addition to the above there were a number of towns and
        villages which cannot be classified, or only with extreme doubt.
        They are as follows:

        Acpactaniche, on the headwaters of Coosa River, perhaps meant for
        Pakana.

        Alkehatchee, an Upper Creek town.

        Atchasapa, on Tallapoosa River not far below Tulsa, possibly for
        Hatcheechubba.

        Aucheucaula, in the northwestern part of Coosa County.

        Auhoba, below Autauga. (See Alabama.)

        Breed Camp, an Upper Creek town, probably meant for the Chickasaw
        settlement of Ooe-asa.

        Cauwaoulau, a Lower Creek village in Russell County west of Uehee
        Post Office and south of the old Federal road.

        Chachane, the Lower Creek town farthest downstream.

        Chanahunrege, between the Coosa and Tallapoosa Rivers in or near
        Coosa County.

        Chananagi, placed by Brannon (1909) "in Bullock County, just
        south of the Central of Georgia Railroad near Susponsion."

        Chichoufkee, an Upper Creek town in Elmore County, east of Coosa
        River and near Wiwoka Creek.

        Chinnaby's Fort, at Ten Islands in the Coosa River.

        Chiscalage, in or near Coosa County, perhaps a body of Yuchi.

        Cholocco Litabixee, in the Horseshoe Bend of Tallapoosa River.

        Chuahla, just below White Oak Creek, south of Alabama River.

        Cohatchie, in the southwestern part of Talladega County on the
        bank of Coosa River.

        Conaliga, in the western part of Russell County or the eastern
        part of Macon, somewhere near the present Warrior Stand.

        Cooccohapofe, on Chattahoochee River.

        Cotohautustenuggee, on the right bank of Upatoie Creek, Muscogee
        County, Ga.

        Cow Towns, location uncertain.

        Donnally's Town, on the Flint or the Chattahoochee River.

        Ekun-duts-ke, probably on the south bank of Line Creek in
        Montgomery County.

        Emarhe, location uncertain.

        Eto-husse-wakkes, on Chattahoochee River, 3 miles above Fort
        Gaines.

        Fife's Village, an Upper Creek village a few miles east of
        Talladega, Ala.

        Fin'halui, a Lower Creek settlement, perhaps the Yuchi settlement
        of High Log.

        Habiquache, given by the Popple Map as on the west side of Coosa
        River.

        Ikan atchaka, "Holy Ground," in Lowndes County, 2 1/2 miles due
        north of White Hall, just below the mouth of Holy Ground Creek on
        the Old Sprott Plantation.

        Istapoga, in Talladega County near the influx of Estaboga Creek
        into Choccolocco Creek, about 10 miles from Coosa River.

        Kehatches, somewhere above the bend of Tallapoosa River and
        between it and the Coosa.

        Keroff, apparently on the upper Coosa.

        Litafatchi, at the head of Canoe Creek in St. Clair County.

        Lustuhatchee, above the second cataract of Tallapoosa River.

        Melton's Village, in Marshall County, Ala., on Town Creek, at the
        site of the present "Old Village Ford."

        Ninnipaskulgee, near Tukabahchee.

        Nipky, probably a Lower Creek town.

        Oakchinawa Village, in Talladega County, on both sides of Salt
        Creek, near the point where it flows into Big Shoal Creek.

        Old Osonee Town, on Cahawba River in Shelby County.

        Opillako, on Pinthlocco Creek in Coosa County.

        Oti palin, on the west bank of Coosa River, just below the
        junction of Canoe Creek. (See Chinnaby's Fort.)

        Oti tutcina, probably between Coosa and Opillako or Pakan
        Tallahassee and on Coosa River.

        Pea Creek, perhaps an out settlement of Tukabahchee, location
        unknown.

        Pin Huti, somewhere near Dadeville in Tallapoosa County.

        Rabbit Town, possibly a nickname, location unknown.

        St. Taffery's, location unknown.

        Satapo, on Tennessee River.

        Talipsehogy, an Upper Creek settlement.

        Talishntchie Town, in Calhoun County east of a branch of
        Tallasehatchee Creek 3 miles southwest of Jacksonville.

        Tallapoosa, said to be within a day's journey of Fort Toulouse at
        the junction of the Coosa and Tallapoosa River and probably on
        the river of that name.

        Talwa Hadjo, on Cahawba River.

        Tohowogly, perhaps intended for Sawokli, 8 to 10 miles below the
        falls of the Chattahoochee.

        Turkey Creek, in Jefferson County, on Turkey Greek north of
        Trussville, probably Creek.

        Uncuaula, in the western part of Coosa County on Coosa River.

        Wallhal, an Upper Creek town given on the Purcell map, perhaps
        intended for Eufaula, or an independent town on Wallahatchee
        Creek, Elmore County.

        Weyolla, a town so entered on the Popple Map, between the Coosa
        and Tallapoosa but near the former; probably a distorted form of
        the name of some well-known place.

        History.- Muskogee tradition points to the northwest for the
        origin of the nation. In the spring of 1540, De Soto passed
        through some settlements and a "province" called Chisi, Ichisi,
        and Achese, in southern Georgia, which may have been occupied by
        Muskogee because they are known to Hitchiti-speaking people as
        Ochesee. Somewhat later he entered Cofitachequi, probably either
        the later Kasihta, or Coweta, and the same summer he entered
        Coosa and passed through the country of the Upper Creeks.
        Companions of De Luna visited Coosa again in 1559 and assisted it
        in its wars with a neighboring tribe to the West, the Napochi.
        Cofitachequi was visited later by Juan Pardo and other Spanish
        explorers and some of Pardo's companions penetrated as far as
        Coosa. It is probable that part if not all of the province of
        Guale on the Georgia coast was at that time occupied by Muskogee,
        and relations between the Guale Indians and the Spaniards
        continued intimate from 1565 onward. Soon afterward the Spaniards
        also encountered the Creeks of Chattahoochee River. At what time
        the confederacy of which the Muskogee were the most important
        part was established is unknown but the nucleus probably existed
        in De Soto's time. At any rate it was in a flourishing condition
        in 1670 when South Carolina was colonized and probably continued
        to grow more rapidly than before owing to the accession of Creek
        tribes displaced by the Whites or other tribes whom the Whites
        had displaced. Before 1715 a large body were living on Ocmulgee
        River but following on the Yamasee outbreak of that year they 
        withdrew to the Chattahoochee from which they had moved previously 
        to be near the English trading posts. Occupying as they did a 
        central position between the English, Spanish, and French 
        colonies, the favor of the Creeks was a matter of concern to these 
        nations, and they played a more important part than any other 
        American Indians in the colonial history of the Gulf region. For a 
        considerable period they were allied with the English, and they 
        were largely instrumental in destroying the former Indian 
        inhabitants of Florida and breaking up the missions which had been 
        established there. Finding the territory thus vacated very 
        agreeable and one abounding in game, they presently began to 
        settle in it permanently particularly after it was ceded to Great 
        Britain in 1763. The first of the true Muskogee to emigrate to 
        Florida, except for a small band of Coweta, were some Eufaula 
        Indians, and the Muskogee do not seem to have constituted the 
        dominant element until after the Creek-American war, 1813-14. In 
        the last decades of the eighteenth century, the internal 
        organization of the Confederacy was almost revolutionized by 
        Alexander McGillivray, the son of a Scotch trader, who set up a 
        virtual dictatorship and raised the Confederacy to a high position 
        of influence by his skill in playing off one European nation 
        against another. After his death friction developed between the 
        factions favorable to and those opposed to the Whites. Inspired by 
        the Shawnee chief, Tecumseh, a large part of the Upper Creeks 
        broke out into open hostilities in 1813, but nearly all of the 
        Lower Creeks and some of the most prominent Upper Creek towns 
        refused to join with them and a large force from the Lower Creeks 
        under William MacIntosh and Timpoochee Barnard, the Yuchi chief, 
        actively aided the American army. This war was ended by Andrew 
        Jackson's victory at Horsehoe Bend on the Tallapoosa River, March 
        27, 1814. One immediate result of this war was to double or triple 
        the number of Seminole in Florida, owing to the multitude of 
        Creeks who wished to escape from their old country. 

             From this time on friction between the pro-White and anti-
        White Creek factions increased. When the United States Government
        attempted to end these troubles by inducing the Indians to
        emigrate, the friction increased still more and culminated in
        1825 when the Georgia commissioners had induced William
        MacIntosh, leader of the pro-American faction, and some other
        chiefs to affix their signatures to a treaty ceding all that was
        then left of the Creek lands. For this act formal sentence of
        death was passed upon MacIntosh, and he was shot by a band of
        Indians sent to his house for that purpose May 1, 1825. However,
        the leaders of the Confederacy finally agreed to the removal,
        which took place between 1836 and 1840, the Lower Creeks settling
        in the upper part of their new lands and the Upper Creeks in the
        lower part. The former factional troubles kept the relations
        between these two sections strained for some years, but they were
        finally adjusted and in course of time an elective government
        with a chief, second chief, and a representative assembly of two
        houses was established, which continued until the nation was
        incorporated into the State of Oklahoma.

        Population.- Except where an attempt is made to give the
        population by towns, it is usually impossible to separate the
        Muskogee from other peoples of the Confederacy. Correct estimates
        of all Creeks are also rendered difficult because they were
        taking in smaller tribes from time to time and giving off
        colonists to Florida and Louisiana. In 1702 Iberville placed the
        whole number of Creek and Alabama families at 2,000. In 1708
        South Carolina officials estimated about 2,000 warriors. In 1715
        something approaching a census was taken of the tribes in their
        vicinity by the government of South Carolina and a total of 1,869
        men and a population of 6,522 was returned for the Creeks,
        exclusive of the Alabama, Yuchi, Shawnee, Apalachicola, and
        Yamasee. A town by town enumeration made by the Spaniards in 1738
        shows 1,660 warriors; a French estimate of 1750, 905; another of
        1760, 2,620; a North Carolina estimate of 1760, 2,000 warriors;
        an English estimate of 1761, 1,385; one of about 3,000 the same
        year; an American estimate of 1792, 2,850; and finally the census
        taken in 1832-33 just before the emigration of the Creeks to
        their new lands across the Mississippi, showed a total of 17,939
        in the true Muskogee towns. Besides these more careful
        statements, we have a number of general estimates of warriors in
        the eighteenth century ranging from 1,250 up to between 5,000 and
        6,000. This last was by Alexander McGillivray and is nearest that
        shown by the census of 1832-33. It would seem either that the
        earlier estimates were uniformly too low or that the Confederacy
        increased rapidly during the latter part of the eighteenth
        century and the first part of the nineteenth. After the removal
        estimates returned by the Indian Office and from other sources
        ranged between 20,000 and 25,000.

             When a new census was taken in 1857, however, less than
        15,000 were resumed, and there was a slow falling off until 1919
        when there were about 12,000. It must be noted that the census of
        1910 returned only 6,945, a figure which can be reconciled with
        that of the United States Indian Office only on the supposition
        that it is supposed to cover only Indians of full or nearly full
        blood. The report of the United States Indian Office for 1923
        gives 11,952 Creeks by blood.

             Regarding the later population it must be remembered that it
        has become more and more diluted. The United States Census of
        1930 gave 9,083 but included the Alabama and Koasati Indians of
        Texas and Louisiana and individuals scattered through more than
        13 other States outside of Oklahoma, where 8,760 lived. These
        "general estimates" include the incorporated tribes.

        Connection in which they have become noted.- In the form
        Muskhogean, the name of this tribe was adopted by Powell (1891)
        for that group of languages to which the speech of the Muskogee
        belongs. In the form Muscogee it has been given to a county in
        western Georgia, and to a railroad junction in it, and to a post-
        village in Escambia County, Fla. In the form Muskogee it is the
        name of the capital of Muskogee County, Okla., the third largest
        city in that state. The political organization of which they
        constituted the nucleus and the dominant element represents the
        most successful attempt north of Mexico at the formation of a
        superstate except that made by the Iroquois, and the part they
        played in the early history of our Gulf region was greater than
        that of any other, not even excepting the Cherokee. They were one
        of the principal mound-building tribes to survive into modern
        times and were unsurpassed in the elaborate character of their
        ceremonials (except possibly by the Natchez), while their prowess
        in war was proven by the great contest which they waged with the
        United States Government in 1813-14, and the still more
        remarkable struggle which their Seminole relatives and descendants
        maintained in Florida in 1835-1842. Their great war speaker,
        Hopohithli-yahola, was probably surpassed in native greatness by
        no chief in this area except the Choctaw Pushmataha. (See
        Foreman, 1930.)

        
Napochi
. If connected with Choctaw Napissa, as seems not
        unlikely, the name means "those who see," or " those who look
        out," probably equivalent to "frontiersmen."

        Connection.- They belonged to the southern division of the
        Muskhogeans proper, and were seemingly nearest to the Choctaw.

        Location.- Along Black Warrior River.

        History.- The tribe appears first in the account of an attempt to
        colonize the Gulf States in 1559 under Don Tristan de Luna. A
        part of his forces being sent inland from Pensacola Bay came to
        Coosa in 1560 and assisted its people against the Napochi, whom
        they claimed to have reduced to "allegiance" to the former. After
        this the Napochi seem to have left the Black Warrior, and we know
        nothing certain of their fate, but the name was preserved down to
        very recent times among the Creeks as a war name, and it is
        probable that they are the Napissa spoken of by Iberville in
        1699, as having recently united with the Chickasaw. Possibly the
        Acolapissa of Pearl River and the Quinipissa of Louisiana were
        parts of the same tribe.

        Population.- Unknown.

        Connection in which they have become noted.- The only clan the
        Napochi have to distinction is their possible connection with the
        remarkable group of mounds at Moundville, Hale County, Ala.

        
Natchez
. One section of the Natchez Indians settled among the
        Abihka Creeks near Coosa River after 1731 and went to Oklahoma a
        century later with the rest of the Creeks. (See Mississippi.)

        
Okchai
. A division of the Muskogee (q. v.).

        
Okmulgee
. A Creek tribe and town of the Hitchiti connection. (See
        Georgia.)

        
Osochi
. Meaning unknown.

        Connections.- Within recent times the closest connections of this
        tribe have been with the Chiaha, though their language is said
        to have been Muskogee, but there is some reason to think that
        they may have been originally a part of the Timucua. (See below.)

        Location.- Their best known historic seat was in the great bend
        of Chattahoochee River, Russell County, Ala., near the Chiaha.
        (See also Georgia and Florida.)


                                  Villages

        The town of Hotalgi-huyana populated in part from this tribe and
        in part from the Chiaha. The census of 1832 gives two
        settlements, one on the Chattahoochee River and one on a stream
        called Opillike Hatchee.

        History.- The suggestion that the Osochi may have been Timucua is
        founded (1) on the resemblance of their name to that of a Timucua
        division in northwest Florida called by the Spaniards Ossachile
        or Ucachile, (2) on the fact that after the Timucua uprising of
        1666 some of the rebels "fled to the woods," and (3) the later
        mention of a detached body of Timucua in the neighborhood of the
        Apalachicola. Early in the eighteenth century they seem to have
        been living with or near the Apalachicola at the junction of the
        Chattahoochee and Flint. From what Hawkins (1848) tells us
        regarding them, we must suppose that they moved up Flint River
        somewhat later and from there to the Chattahoochee, in the
        location near the Chiaha above given. They migrated to Oklahoma
        with the rest of the Lower Creeks, and maintained their
        separateness in that country for a while but were later absorbed
        in the general mass of the Creek population.

        Population.- The following estimates of the effective male
        population of the Osochi occur: 1750, 30; 1760, 50; 1792, 50. The
        census of 1832-33 returned a total of 539, but one of the two
        towns inhabited by these Indians may have belonged to the
        Okmulgee.

        
Pakana
. A division of the Muskogee (q. v.).

        
Pawokti
. This tribe moved from Florida to the neighborhood of
        Mobile along with the Alabama Indians and afterward established a
        town on the upper course of Alabama River. Still later they were
        absorbed into the Alabama division of the Creek Confederacy. (See
        Florida.)

        
Pilthlako
. A division of the Creeks, probably related to the
        Muskogee (q. v.), and possibly a division of the Okchai.

        
Sawokli
. Possibly meaning "raccoon people," in the Hitchiti
        language, and, while this is not absolutely certain, the okli
        undoubtedly means "people."

        Connections.- The Sawokli belonged to the Muskhogean linguistic
        stock and to the subdivision called Atcik-hata. (See
        Apalachicola.)

        Location. - The best known historic location was on the
        Chattahoochee River in the northeastern part of the present Barbour
        County, Ala. (See Florida and Georgia.)

                                  Villages

        Hatchee teaba, probably on or near Hatchechubbee Creek, in

        Russell County, Ala.

        Okawaigi, on Cowikee Creek, in Barbour County, Ala.

        Okiti-yagani, in Clay County, Ga., not far from Fort Gaines.

        Sawokli, several different locations, the best known of which is
        given above.

        Sawoklutci, on the east bank of the Chattahoochee River, in
        Stewart County, Ga.

        Tcawokli, probably on Chattahoochee River in the northeastern
        part of Russell County, Ala.

        History.- When first known to the Spaniards the Sawokli were 
        living on Chattahoochee River below the falls. A Spanish mission, 
        Santa Cruz de Sabacola, was established in one section of the 
        tribe by Bishop Calderon of Cuba in 1675, and missionaries were 
        sent to a larger body among the Creeks in 1679 and again in 1681. 
        Most of the Indians surrounding these latter, however, soon became 
        hostile and those who were Christianized withdrew to the junction 
        of the Chattahoochee and Flint Rivers, where they were settled not 
        far from the newly established Chatot missions. The Sawokli appear 
        to have remained in the same general region until 1706 or 1707, 
        when they were displaced by hostile Indians, probably Creeks. At 
        least part lived for a while on Ocmulgee River and returned to the 
        Chattahoochee, as did the residents of many other Indian towns, 
        about 1715, after which they gradually split up into several 
        settlements but followed the fortunes of the Lower Creeks. In the 
        seventeenth century there may have been a detached body as far 
        west as Yazoo River, saw a map of that period gives a "Sabougla" 
        town there and the name is preserved to the present day in a creek 
        and post village. 

        Population.- In 1738 a Spanish report gives the Sawokli 20 men,
        evidently an underestimate. In 1750 four settlements are given
        with more than 50 men, and in 1760 the same number of settlements
        and 190 men, including perhaps the Tamali, but to these must be
        added 30 men of Okiti-yakani. In 1761, including the neighboring
        and probably related villages, they are reported to have had 50
        hunters. Hawkins in 1799 gives 20 hunters in Sawoklutci but no
        figured for the other towns. (See Hawkins, 1848.) In 1821 Young
        (in Morse, 1822) estimates 150 inhabitants in a town probably
        identical with this, and, according to the census of 1832-33,
        there were 187 Indians in Sawokli besides 42 slaves, 157 Indians
        in Okawaigi, and 106 in Hatcheetcaba; altogether, exclusive of
        the slaves, 450.

        Connection in which they have become noted.- Sawokla is the name
        of a small place in Oklahoma, and a branch of this town has had
        its name incorporated in that of a stream, the Chewokeleehatchee,
        in Macon County., Ala., and in a post office called Chewacla in
        Lee County, Ala.

        
Shawnee
. In 1716 a band of Shawnee from Savannah River moved to
        the Chattahoochee and later to the Tallapoosa, where they
        remained until early in the nineteenth century. A second band
        settled near Sylacauga in 1747 and remained there until some time
        before 1761 when they returned north. (See Tennessee.)

        
Taensa
. This tribe was moved from Louisiana in 1715 and given a
        location about 2 leagues from the French fort at Mobile, one
        which had been recently abandoned by the Tawasa, along a water-
        course which was named from them Tensaw River. Soon after the
        cession of Mobile to Great Britain, the Taensa returned to
        Louisiana. (See Louisiana.)

        
Tohome
. Said by Iberville to mean "little chief," but this is
        evidently an error.

        Connections.- They belonged to the southern branch of the
        Muskhogean linguistic group, their closest relatives being the
        Mobile.

        Location.- About McIntosh's Bluff on the west bank of Tombigbee
        River, some miles above its junction with the Alabama.

                              Subdivisions

        Anciently there were two main branches of this tribe, sometimes
        called the Big Tohome and Little Tohome, but the Little Tohome
        are known more often as Naniaba, "people dwelling on a hill," or
        "people of the Forks;" the latter would be because they were
        where the Alabama and Tombigbee Rivers unite.

                                Villages

        No others are known than those which received their names from
        the tribe and its subdivisions.

        History.- Cartographical evidence suggests that the Tohome may
        once have lived on a creek formerly known as Oke Thome, now
        contracted into Catoma, which flows into Alabama River a short
        distance below Montgomery. When first discovered by the Whites,
        however, they were living at the point above indicated. In the De
        Luna narratives (1559-60) the Tombigbee River is called "River of
        the Tome." Iberville learned of this tribe in April 1700, and
        sent messengers who reached the Tohome village and returned in
        May. In 1702 he went to see them himself but seems not to have
        gone beyond the Naniaba. From this time on Tohome history is
        identical with that of the Nobile and the two tribes appear
        usually to have been in alliance although a rupture between them
        was threatened upon one occasion on account of the murder of a
        Mobile woman by one of the Tohome. In 1715 a Tohome Indian killed
        an English trader named Hughes who had come overland from South
        Carolina, had been apprehended and taken to Mobile by the French
        and afterward liberated. A bare mention of the tribe occurs in
        1763 and again in 1771-72. They and the Mobile probably united
        ultimately with the Choctaw.

        Population.- In 1700 Iberville estimated that the Tohome and
        Mobile each counted 300 warriors, but 2 years later he revised
        his figures so far that he gave 350 for the two together. In 1730
        Regis de Rouillet estimated that there were 60 among the Tohome
        and 50 among the Naniaba. In 1758 Governor De Kerlerec estimated
        that the Mobile, Tohome, and Naniaba together had 100 warriors.
        (See Mobile.)

        
Tukabahchee
. One of the four head tribes of the Muskogee (q. v.).

        
Tuskegee
. Meaning unknown, but apparently containing the

        Alabama term taska, "warrior."

        Connection.- The original Tuskegee language is unknown but it was
        probably affiliated with the Alabama, and hence with the southern
        branch of Muskhogeans.

        Location.- The later and best known location of this tribe was on
        the point of land between Coosa and Tallapoosa Rivers, but in
        1685 part of them were on the Chattahoochee River near modern
        Columbus and the rest were on the upper Tennessee near Long
        Island. (See also Oklahoma and Tennessee.)

                               Villages

        None are known under any except the tribal name.

        History.- In 1540 De Soto passed through a town called Tasqui 2
        days before he entered Coosa. In 1567 Vandera was informed that
        there were two places in this neighborhood near together called
        Tasqui and Tasquiqui, both of which probably belonged to the
        Tuskegee.

             By the close of the seventeenth century the Tuskegee appear
        to have divided into two bands one of which Coxe (1705) places on
        an island in Tennessee River. This band continued to live on or
        near the Tennessee for a considerable period but in course of
        time settled among the Cherokee on the south side of Little
        Tennessee River, just above the mouth of Tellico, in the present
        Monroe County, Tenn. Sequoya lived there in his boyhood. Another
        place which retained this name, and was probably the site of an
        earlier settlement was on the north bank of Tennessee River, in a
        bend just below Chattanooga, while there was a Tuskegee Creek on
        the south bank of Little Tennessee River, north of Robbinsville,
        in Graham County, N. C. This band, or the greater part of it, was
        probably absorbed by the Cherokee.

             A second body of Tuskegee moved to the location mentioned
        above where the Coosa and Tallapoosa Rivers come together. It is
        possible that they first established themselves among the Creek
        towns on the Ocmulgee, moved with them to the Chattahoochee in
        1715 and finally to the point just indicated, for we have at
        least two documentary notices of Tuskegee at those points and
        they appear so situated on a number of maps. It is more likely
        that these were the Tuskegee who finally settled at the Coosa-
        Tallapoosa confluence than a third division of the tribe but the
        fact is not yet established. In 1717 the French fort called Fort
        Toulouse or the Alabama Fort was built close to this town and
        therefore it continued in the French interest as long as French
        rule lasted. After the Creek removal, the Tuskegee formed a town
        in the southeastern part of the Creek territories in Oklahoma,
        but at a later date part moved farther to the northwest and
        established themselves near Beggs.

        Population.- There are no figures for the Tuskegee division which
        remained on Tennessee River. The southern band had 10 men
        according to the estimate of 1750, but this is evidently too low.
        Later enumerations are 50 men in 1760, 40 in 1761, including
        those of Coosa Old Town, 25 in 1772 and 1792, 35 in 1799. The
        census of 1832-33 returned a population of 216 Indians and 25
        Negro slaves.

        Connection in which they have become noted.- The name Tuskegee
        became applied locally to several places in eastern Tennessee and
        western North Carolina, and one in Creek County, Okla., but the
        most important place to receive it was Tuskeegee or Tuskegee, the
        county seat of Macon County, Ala. The Tuskegee Normal and
        Industrial Institute for colored people, located at this place,
        has, under the guidance of the late Booker T. Washington, made
        the name better known than any other association.

        
Wakokai
. A division or subtribe of the Muskogee (q.v.)

        
Wiwohka
. A division of the Muskogee made up from several different
        sources. (See Muskogee.)

        
Yamasee
. There was a band of Yamasee on Mobile Bay shortly after
        1716, at the mouth of the River, and such a band is entered on
        maps as late as 1744. It was possibly this same band which
        appears among the Upper Creeks during the same century and in
        particular is entered upon the Mitchell map of 1755. Later they
        seem to have moved across to Chattahoochee River and later to
        west Florida, where in 1823 they constituted a Seminole town.
        (See Florida.)

        
Yuchi
. A band of Yuchi seems to have lived at a very early date
        near Muscle Shoals on the Tennessee River, whence they probably
        moved into east Tennessee. A second body of the same tribe moved
        from Choctawhatchee River, Fla., to the Tallapoosa before 1760
        and established themselves near the Tukabahchee, but they soon
        disappeared from the historical record. In 1715 the Westo
        Indians, who I believe to have been Yuchi, settled on the Alabama
        side of Chattahoochee River, probably on Little  Creek. The
        year afterward another band, accompanied by Shawnee and
        Apalachicola Indians, established themselves farther down,
        perhaps at the mouth of Cowikee Creek in Barbour County, and not
        long afterward accompanied the Shawnee to Tallapoosa River. They
        settled beside the latter and some finally united with them. They
        seem to have occupied several towns in the neighborhood in
        succession and there is evidence that a part of them reached the
        lower Tombigbee. The main body of Yuchi shifted from the Savannah
        to Uchee Creek in Russell County between 1729 and 1740 and
        continued there until the westward migration of the Creek Nation.
        (See Georgia.)


        

Alaska


        The Indian Tribes of North America by John R. Swanton

        
Ahtenn
. Signifying "Ice People." Also called:

             Copper River Indians, popular name.
             Intsi Dindjich, Kutchin name, meaning "men of iron."
             Ketschetnaer or Kolshina, Russian name meaning "ice people."
             Mednofski, Russian name meaning "copper river people."
             Yellowknife Indians, by Ross (quoted by Dall, 1877).
             Yullit, Ugalakmiut name.

        Connections.- The Ahtena belonged to the Athapascan linguistic
        stock. Physically they are said to bear a close resemblance to
        the Koyukukhotana. (See Koyukan.)

        Location.- In the basin of Copper River.

                                Subdivisions

        According to Allen (1887):

        Miduusky, on Copper River from its mouth to Tazlina River, and
        its branches.

        Tatlazan, above the Tazlina.

        According to Hoffman (ms.):

        Ikherkhamut, near the mouth of Copper River.

        Kangikhlukhmut, at the head of Copper River.

        Kulchana, about headwaters of the Kuskokwim and extending
        probably into the valley of Copper River, but Osgood (1936) calls
        this "an erroneous generalized extension of the Ahtena people."

        Kulushut, on Copper River next above the Ikherkhamut.

        Shukhtutakhlit, on Copper River next above the Kangikhlukhmut.

        Vikhit, next below the Kulchana (?).

                                Villages

        Alaganik, with Ugslakmiut near the mouth of Copper River.

        Batzulnetas, near upper Copper River where the trail for Tanana
        River begins.

        Liebigstag, on the left bank of Copper River, latitude 61- 57'
        N., longitude 145- 45' W.

        Miduuski, on the east bank of Copper River below the mouth of
        Tonsina Creek.

        Skatalis, near the mouth of Copper River, probably the original
        Alaganik.

        Skolai, on Nizina River near the mouth of Chitistone River,
        latitude 61- 21' N., longitude 143- 17' W.

        Slana, at the confluence of Slana and Copper Rivers.

        Titlogat, probably of the Kulchana division. (Osgood above.)

        Toral, on Copper River at the mouth of Chitina River.

        History The mouth of Copper River was discovered by Nagaieff
        in 1781, but expeditions into the interior met with such
        consistent hostility on the part of the natives that for a long
        time they were a simple record of failure. The attempts of
        Samoylof in 1796, Lastochkin in 1798, Klimoffsky in 1819, and
        Gregorief in 1844 all ended in the same way. Serebrannikof
        ventured up the river in 1848, but his disregard for the natives
        cost him his life and the lives of three of his companions. In
        1882 after the cession of Alaska to the United States, a trader
        named Holt ascended as Iar as Taral but on a subsequent visit he
        was killed by the natives. In 1884 Lt. Abercrombie explored a
        part of the river, and in 1885 a thorough exploration of the
        whole region was made by Lt. Allen, who visited the Ahtena
        villages on Copper River and on its principal tributaries. From
        that time on intercourse between the river people and Whites has
        been increasingly intimate.

        Population.- Mooney (1928) estimated 500 Ahtena for the year
        1740. Petroff (1884) placed their numbers in 1880 at not more
        than 300. Allen (1887) gave 366 on the river and its branches.
        The census of 1890 returned 142, and that of 1910, 297. In 1920
        the total native population of Alaska speaking Athapascan
        dialects was 4,657; in 1930, 4,935.

        
Aleut
. A name of unknown origin but traced with some plausibility
        to the Chukchi word aliat, meaning "island," which is supposed to
        have been bestowed upon the inhabitants of the Aleutian Islands
        through a misunderstanding. Also called:

             Takhayuna. Knaiakhotana, name according to Petroff (1884).
             U-nung'un, own name, according to Dall (1886).

        Connections.- The Aleut constituted the only widely divergent
        branch of the Eskimauan linguistic stock, the remainder of the
        tongues of that family being closely related.

        Location.- On the Aleutuian Islands, the Shumagin Islands, and
        the western part of Alaska Peninsula.

                                  Subdivisions

        There were two main subdivisions distinguished by difference in
        dialect: (1) the Atka, on Andreanof, Rat. and Near Islands; and
        (2) the Unalaska on the Fox and Shumagin Islands and Alaska
        Peninsula.

                                   Villages

        I. Atka Division

             Attu, on Holt Bay (Chichagof Harbor ?), Attu Island.
             Korovinski, at Korovin Bay, on Atka Island.
             Nazan, on Atka Island.
             Unalga, on Unalga Island, Andreanof group;

        The following ruined places on the single island of Agattu:

        Agonakagna. Atkulik Atkigvin, Hachimuk, Hamnulik, Hanilik,
        Hapkug, Higtiguk, Hilksuk, Ibin, Imik, Iptugik, Isituchi,
        Kakuguk, Kamuksusik, Kaslukug, Kigsitatok, Kikchik, Kikun,
        Kimituk, Kitak, Kuptagok, Magtok, Mukugnuk, Navisok, Siksatok,
        Sunik, Ugiatok, Ugtikun, Ugtumuk, Ukashik.

        II. Unalaska Division:

             Akutan, on Akutan Island, close to Unalaska Island.
             Avatanak, on Avatanak Island, between Unalsska and Unimak
        Islands.
             Belkofski, near the end of Alaska Peninsula.
             Biorka, on Piorka Island near Unalaska.
             Chernofski, on Unalaska Island.
             Eider, on Captain Bay, Unalaska Island.
             Iliuliuk, on Unalaska Island.
             Kashiga, on Unalaska Island.
             Korovinski, on Korovin Island.
             Makushin, on Makushin Bay, Unalaska Island.
             Mashlk, at Port Moller, Alaska Peninsula.
             Morzhovoi, at the end of Alaska Peninsula, formerly at the
        head of Morzhovoi and later on Traders Cove which opens into
        Isanotski Bay.
             Nateekin, on Nateekin Bay, Unalaska Island.
             Nikolaief, on Alaska Peninsula north of Belkofski.
             Nikolski, on Unmak Island.
             Pavlof, at Selenie Point, Pavlof Bay, Alaska Pensinsula.
             Pogromni, near Pogromni volcano, on the north shore of
        Unimak Island.
             Popof, at Pirate Cove, Popof Island, one of the Shumagins.
             Saint George, on St. George Island, Pribilof group.
             Saint Paul, on Saint Paul Island, Pribilof group.
             Sannak, on Sannnk Island.
             Unga, on Unga Island, Shumagin group.
             Vossnessenski, on Vossnessenski Island, in the Shumagin
        group.

                        Villages reported by later writers:

        Agulok, on Unalaska Island.

        Akun, on Akun Island, between Unalaska and Unimak.

        Artelnof, on Akun Island.

        Beaver, on Unalaska Island.

        Chaliuknak, on Beaver Bay, Unalaska Island.

        Ikolga, on Unalaska Island.

        Imagnee, on Summer Bay, Unalaska Island.

        Itchadak, on one of the east Aleutian Islands.

        Kalekhta, on Unalaska Island.

        Kutchlok, on Unalaska Island.

        Riechcsni, on Little Bay, Akun Island in the Krenitzin group.

        Seredka, on Seredka Bay in Akun Island.

        Sisaguk, on Unimak Island.

        Takamitka, on Unalaska Island.

        Tigalda, on Tigalda Island, one of the east Aleutians.

        Totchikala, on Unalaska Island.

        Tulik, on Umnak Island, near a volcano of the same name.

        Ugamitzi, on Unalaska Island.

        Uknodok, on Hog Island, Captains Bay, Unalaska.

        Veselofski, at Cape Cheerful, Unalaska.

        History.- The Aleut became known to the Russians immediately
        after the voyages of Chirikoff and Bering in 1741, the
        discovery of the islands themselves being attributed to Mikhail
        Nerodchikof, September 1745. Though the natives at first resisted
        the exactions of the foreign traders with courage, their darts
        were no match for firearms, and they were not only cruelly
        treated themselves but were forced into the service of their
        masters as allies in attacks upon more distant peoples. It is
        said they were soon reduced to one tenth of their former numbers.
        In 1794-1818 the Russian Government interfered to protect them
        from exploitation, and their condition was somewhat improved, but
        most of the improvement they experienced at Russian hands was due
        to the noted missionary Veniaminoff, who began his labors in
        1824. Through his efforts and those of his fellow missionaries of
        the Greek Church, all of the Aleut were soon converted, and they
        were to some extent educated. In 1867 they, with the rest of the
        population of Alaska, passed under the control of the United
        States.

        Population.- Mooney (1928) estimated that in 1740 there were
        16,000 Aleut. Veniaminoff (1840) gave the Atka population as 750
        in 1834 and the Unalaska population as 1,497. In 1848 Father
        Shaiesnekov enumerated 1,400 all told, a figure which was reduced
        to 900 as a result of the smallpox epidemic of that year. Dall
        (1877) estimated that there were about 2,000, and according to
        the census of 1890 there were 1,702, including 734 mixed-bloods.
        The census of 1910 returned 1,451. The native Alaskan population
        speaking Eskimauun dialects was 13,698 in 1920 and 19,028 in
        1930.

        Connection in which they have become noted.- The name of the
        Aleut is perpetuated in that of the Aleutian Islands, and from
        their language is derived the word Alaska, applied to Alaska
        Territory, and to Alaska Peninsula, which such a large number of
        the Aleut inhabit.

        Dihai-kutchin. Signifying "Kutchin farthest downstream."

        Connections.- The Dihai-kutchin were a band or tribe of the
        Kutchin division of the Athapascan linguistic stock. They are
        added to Osgood's (1936) list of true Kutchin tribes on the
        authority of Robert McKennan (1935).

        Location.- The Dihai-kutchin lived about the north fork of
        Chandalar River, and the Middle and South Forks of the Koyokuk
        River, Alaska.

        Population.- The Dihai-kutchin were never numerous and are now
        extinct as a separate body of Indians.

        
Eskimo
. All of the coast lands of Alaska from Kayak Island near
        the mouth of Copper River to the Canadian boundary on the Arctic
        coast were fringed with Eskimo settlements except the upper end
        of Cook Inlet and that part of Alaska Peninsula which, with the
        Aleutian Islands, was occupied by the cognate Aleut. (See Aleut
        and Canada.)

        
Haida
. A part of this tribe settled on Prince of Wales and Dall
        Islands early in the eighteenth century and are locally known as
        Kaigani. (See Haida under Canada.) The Kaigani population
        in 1910 numbered 530; in 1920, 524; and in 1930, 588.

        
Han
. Signifying "those who dwell along the river."

        Connections.- Athapascan linguistic stock.

        Location.- The Yukon River drainage between latitude 64 and 66
        N., in east central Alaska and Yukon Territory, Canada.

                                 Subdivisions

        Katshikotin or Eagle group (about the village of Eagle on Yukon
        River), including Johnny's Village and probably also Charlie's
        age or Tadush (near the mouth of Kandik River) Takon of Nuklako
        (centering at the confluence of the Klondike and Yukon Rivers),
        and perhaps a third, Fetutlin (near the mouth of Forty Mile
        Creek.).

        Population.- Mooney (1928) estimates that there were 200 Han in
        1740.

        
Ingalik
. Name given by the Eskimo but widely used as applied to
        these Indians.

        Connections.- The Ingalik were one of the western-most divisions
        of the Athapascan linguistic stock.

        Location.- Between Anvik and Holy Cross on the lower Yukon River,
        including the drainage of the Anvik River and the region
        southeast to the Kuskokwim River, including its drainage above
        Georgetown.

                               Subdivisions

        Osgood (1934) makes the following subdivisions:

        (1) Anvik-Shageluk group, centering around the villages bearing
        these names.
        (2) Bonasila group, centering around the village of the same
        name.
        (3) Holy Cross-Georgetown group, centering around the villages
        bearing those names.
        (4) McGrath group, the people of the drainage of the upper
        Kuskokwim River; this group somewhat arbitrarily constructed.

                       Villages Reported in this Area

        Akmiut, a little above Kolmakof on Kuskokwim River.

        Anvik, at the junction of Anvik and Yukon Rivers.

        C'hagvagchat, near the headwaters of Anvik River.

        Inselnostlinde, on Shageluk River.

        Intenleiden, on the east bank of Shageluk River.

        Khugiligichakat, on Shageluk River.

        Khunanilinde, near the headwaters of Kuskokwim River.

        Koserefski, on the left bank of the Yukon near the mouth of

        Shageluk Slough, later an Ikogmiut Eskimo village.

        Kuingshtetakten, on Shageluk River.

        Kvigimpainag, on the east bank of the Yukon River, 20 miles from
        Kvikak.

        Nnpai, on the north bank of Kuskokwim River.

        Palshikatno, on Innoko River.

        Tigshelde, on Innoko River.

        Tlegoshitno, on Shageluk River.

        Vagitchitchate, near the mouth of Innoko River.

        Population.- (See Ahtena.)

        
Koyukon
. A contraction of Koyukukhotana, "people of Koyukuk
        River."

        Connections.- The Koyukon belonged to the Athapascan linguistic
        stock.

        Location.- On the drainage of the Yukon River south of the mouth
        of the Tanana to about latitude 63 N., including the drainage of
        the Innoko River north of the latitude named, and of the Koyukuk
        River in west central Alaska.

                              Subdivisions

        Kaiyuhkhotana, on Yukon River between the Anvik and Koyukuk,
        including the drainage of Innoko River north of latitude 63 N.

        Koyukukhotana, the drainage of the Koyukuk River.

        Yukonikhotana, the drainage of Yukon River south of the mouth of
        the Tanana to the mouth of the Koyukuk.

                                Villages

        (1) Kaiyuhkhotana villages:

             Anilukhtakpak, on Innoko River.
             Chinik, on the east bank of Yukon River at the junction with
        the Talbiksok.
             Iktigalik, on Unalaklik River.
             Innoka, on Tlegon River.
             Ivan, on the divide between Unalaklik and Yukon Rivers.
             Kagogagat, on the north hank of Yukon River at the mouth of
        Medicine Creek.
             Kaiakak, on the west bank of Yukon River.
             Kaltag, on the left bank of Yukon River.
             Khogoltlinde, on Yukon River.
             Khulikakat, on Yukon River.
             Klamaskwaltin, on the north hank of Yukon River near the
        mouth of Kaiyuh River.
             Kunkhogliak, on Yukon River.
             Kutul, on Yukon River 50 miles above Anvik.
             Lofka, on the west bank of Yukon River.
             Nulato, on the north bank of Yukon River about 100 miles
        from Norton Sound.
             Taguta, on the north bank of Yukon River 15 miles below the
        mouth of the Kaiyuh.
             Takaiak, east of Yukon River near Nulato.
             Talitui, on Tlegon River.
             Tanakot, on the right bank of Yukon River near the mouth of
        Melozi River.
             Terentief, on the Yukon below Koyukuk River.
             Tutago, on Yukon River at the mouth of Auto River.
             Wolasatux, on the east bank of Yukon River on a small stream
        north of Kaiyuh River.

        (2) Koyukukhotana villages:

             Batza, on Batza River.
             Bolshoigor, on Yukon River 25 miles above the mouth of
        Koyukuk River.
             Dotle, on Koyukuk River.
             Hussliakatna, on the right bank of Koyukuk River, 2 miles
        above the south end of Dall Island.
             Kakliaklia, on Koyukuk River at the mouth of Ssukloseanti
        River.
             Kaitat, on an island in Yukon River not far from its
        junction with Koyukuk River.
             Kanuti, on Koyukuk River in latitude 66- 18 N.
             Kautas, on Koyukuk River.
             Kotil, at the junction of Kateel River with Koyukuk River.
             Koyukuk, near the junction of Koyukuk and Yukon Rivers.
             Mentokakat, on the left bank of Yukon River 20 miles above
        the mouth of Melozi River.
             Nohulchinta, on the South Fork of Koyukuk River 3 miles
        above the junction.
             Nok, on the west bank of Koyukuk River near its mouth.
             Notaloten, on Yukon River 20 miles above the mouth of
        Koyukuk River.
             Oonignchtkhokh, on Koyukuk River.
             Soonkakat, on the left bank of the Yukon River below Nulato.
             Tnshoshgon, on Koyukuk River.
             Tlialil, on Koyukuk River.
             Tok, on an island at the junction of Koyukuk River with the
        Yukon.
             Zakatlatnn, on the north bank of Yukon River, in longitude
        156- 30 W.
             Zogliakten, on the east bank of Koyukuk River.
             Zonagogliakten, on the east bank of Koyukuk River.

        (3) Yukonikhotsna villages:

             Chentansitzan, on the north bank of Yukon River 30 miles
        below the mouth of Melozi River.
             Medvednaia, on the south side of Yukon River.
             Melozikakat, on Melozikakat River.
             Noggai, on Yukon River.

             Nowi, on the south side of Yukon River at the mouth of
        Nowikakat River.

             Tohnokalong, on the north bank of Yukon River in longitude
        154- 25 W.

             Tuklukyet, on the north bank of Yukon River 15 miles below
        the mouth of Tozi River.

        History.- Russian influences began to penetrate the country of
        the Koyukon after the establishment of the Russian settlement of
        Kodiak before any settlements had been made on the Kuskokwim or
        Yukon. In 1538 the most important Russian settlement on the lower
        Yukon was made at Nulato, and this was the center of one of the
        very few native uprisings. The post was attacked by neighboring
        Indians in 1851 and most of the inmates butchered. With American
        ownership in 1867 the influences of civilization began to
        increase, and the current was swollen still further by the
        discovery of gold, though this last was hardly to the advantage
        of the aborigines. (See Ahtena.)

        Population.- Mooney (1928) estimated that there were 1,500
        Koyukon in the year 1740. In 1890, 940 were returned.

        
Kutcha-kutchin
. Signifying "those who dwell on the flats," called
        Yukon Flats Kutchin by Osgood (1936). They have also been called
        as follows, but the Eskimo terms are applicable to any Kutchin:

             Fort Indians, Ross (MS).
             Ik-kil-lin. Gilder quoted by Murdoch (1892).
             Itchali, 11th Census, Alaska, p. 154.
             It-ka-lya-ruin, Dall (1877, p. 30); Nuwukmiut Eskimo name.
             Itkpe'lit, Petitot (1876, Vocab., p. 42).
             Itku'dlin, Murdoch (1892).
             Lowland people, Whymper (1868, p. 247).
             Na-Kotchpo-tschig-Kouttchin, Petitot (1891, p. 361).
             O-til'-tin, Dawson (1888, p. 202B).
             Youkon Louchioux Indians, Ross (MS.).

        Connections.- The Kutcha-kutchin were a tribe belonging to the
        Kutchin division of the northern section of the Athapascan
        linguistic family.

        Location.- Along the valley of the Yukon from the widening of the
        river a few miles above Circle to about Birch Creek below Fort
        Yukon.

                                 Villages

        One at Fort Yukon and one at Senati, on the middle Yukon.

        History.- The history of all the Kutchin tribes had best be
        treated in one place. They were first brought into contact with
        Europeans when Alexander Mackenzie met some of them in 1789
        during his descent of the river which bears his name. This became
        more intimate with the establishment of the first Fort Good Hope
        in 1847. Until Alaska passed into the hands of the United States
        practically all of the relations which the Kutchin tribes had
        with Europeans were through the Hudson's Bay Company. Since then
        influences from the west have been more potent. The discovery of
        gold in the Klondike region and the rush which followed marked
        the opening of a new era for these people, but one in which the
        bad for a long time outweighed the good.

        Population.-Mooney (1928) estimated that there were about 500
        of these Indians in 1740. The Kutcha-kutchin and the
        Tranjikkutchin may be put together as Kutchin in the census of
        1910, which enters 359. The Hudson's Bay Co.'s census of 1858
        gave 842 Kutchin belonging to six tribes as resorting to Fort
        Yukon. Osgood (1936), who quotes this, believes that the entire
        Kutchin population at that date might be set down at 1,200. (See
        Ahtena.)

        Connection in which they have become noted.- The Kutchin tribes
        were noted for their greater energy and more warlike character,
        as compared with neighboring Athapascans, and for a peculiar
        three-caste system in their social organization.

        
Nabesna
. From the name of Nabesna River, the meaning of which is
        unknown.

        Connections.- The Nabesna belonged to the Athapascan linguistic
        family.

        Location.- In the entire drainage area of the Nabesna and Chisana
        Rivers, including the tributaries of the Tanana River, which they
        form at their confluence, as far down as the Tok River; the upper
        White River, including its tributaries the Beaver and the Snag,
        and the headwaters of the Ladue; together an area roughly
        enclosed between latitude 61- 31 and 63- 30 N. and longitude 141-
        30 and 143- 30 W. (Dr. Robert C. McKennan through Osgood, 1936).

                                 Subdivisions

        According to McKennan (1935), including the following "extremely
        fluid bands:"

        (1) Ranged about Last Tetling Lake and the Tetling River.
        (2) Ranged about the mouth of the Nabesna River.
        (3) Ranged from the head of the Nabesna through the upper Chisana
        River to the White.
        (4) Ranged from Scottie Creek to the Snag.

        The first of these evidently includes the Nutzotin of earlier
        writers with their villages of Nandell near Wagner Lake and
        Tetling, and the third the Santotin. Khiltats, at the mouth of
        Nabesna River, must have belonged to the second division.

                                  Villages

        Allen (1887) mentions the village of Khiltats at the mouth of the
        Nabesna River.

        History.- White contact with these people was made in 1885 and a
        settlement established at Chisana in 1913.

        
Niska
. This is a tribe of the Chimmesyan linguistic family which
        was just beyond the boundaries of Alaska to the southeast and at
        times hunted over some of its territory. It belonged properly to
        British Columbia. (See Canada.)

        
Natsit-kutckin
. Signifying "those who dwell off the flats [i. e.,
        Yukon River]." Also called:

             Gens du Large, by Ross (MS), from which came the name of
        Chandelar River.
             Natche'-Kutehin, by Dall (1877, p. 430).
             Neyetse-kutchi, by Richardson (1851, vol. 1, p. 399).
             Tpe-ttckie-dhidie-Kouttchin, by Petitot (1891).

        Connections.- The Natsit-kutchin were one of the tribes of the
        Kutchin group of the northern division of the Athapascan
        linguistic stock.

        Location.- On Chandelar River.

        Population.- Mooney (1928) estimated 200 Natsit-kutchin as of the
        year 1740. The census of 1910 returned 177. (See Kutcha-kutchin.)

        
Tanaina
. Own name, meaning "people" exclusive of Eskimo and
        Europeans. Also called Knaiakhotana.

        Connections.- The Tanaina belonged to the Athapascan linguistic
        stock.

        Location.- According to Osgood (1934): "The drainage of Cook
        Inlet north of Seldovia (59- 20 N. lat.), the north half of
        Iliamna Lake and its drainage, including Clark Lake. Since
        contact, possibly slight incursions have been made into territory
        formerly occupied by the Eskimo, notably Seklovia Bay and
        portions of Iliamna Lake."

                                Subdivisions

        Osgood (1936) gives the following:

        (1) Lower Inlet (Seldovia and Kachemak Bay).
        (2) Middle Inlet (Tustamena, Skilak, and Kenai Lakes and the
        adjacent coast).
        (3) Upper Inlet (Knik arm of Cook Inlet and its drainage).
        (4) Susitns (Susitna River and drainage).
        (5) Tyonek (west coastal region of Cook Inlet).
        (6) Iliamna (region of the north part of Iliamna Lake and its
        drainage).
        (7) Clark Lake (the region about Clark Lake).

                                 Villages

        Chinila, on the east side of Cook Inlet near the mouth of Kaknu
        River.

        Chuitna (not given by Osgood), on Cook Inlet at the mouth of
        Chuit River.

        Eklutna, at the head of Knik Arm.

        Iliamna, near the mouth of the Iliamna River.

        Kasilof, on the east coast of Cook Inlet at the mouth of Kasilof
        River.

        Kasnatchin, at Anchor Point, Kenai Peninsula.

        Kenai, on the east side of Cook Inlet at the mouth of Kaknu
        River.

        Kilchik (not noted by Osgood), on Lake Clark.

        Knakatnuk, opposite Nitak on the west side of Knik Arm, at the
        head of Cook Inlet.

        Knik, near the mouth of Knik River.

        Kultuk, on the east side of Cook Inlet near Nikishka.

        Kustatan, on the west side of Cook Inlet below Tyonek.

        Nikhkak, on Lake Clark.

        Nikishka, near East Foreland at the head of Cook Inlet.

        Ninilchik, on the east coast of Cook Inlet south of the mouth of
        Kasilof River.

        Nitak, on the east side of Knik Bay at the head of Cook Inlet and
        near Eklutna.

        Skilak, on the south side of Skilak Lake, Kenai Peninsula.

        Skittok, on Kaknu River and forming part of the Kenai settlement.

        Susitna, on Susitna River, Cook Inlet.

        Titukilsk, on the east shore of Cook Inlet and near Nikishka.

        Tyonek, on the west side of Cook Inlet.

        Zdluiat, on the east side of Knik Bay south of Nitak

        History. - Cook Inlet received its name from Captain Cook who
        entered it in May 1778, but all of the natives met by him seem to
        have been Eskimo. The Russian settlement of Kodiak in 1784
        marked an important event for the history of the region because
        the Russians, assisted by Aleut hunters, at once began to exploit
        the animal wealth of the neighboring region, and Cook Inlet was a
        principal scene of their activities. In July 1786, Portlock and
        Dixon went to the very head of Cook Inlet and must have had
        dealings with the Tanaina because they met with considerable
        success in their trading operations. Captain Douglas visited the
        inlet in 1788. Russian ownership gave place to ownership by the
        United States in 1867, but Cook Inlet was exploited relatively
        little until the railroad line was built from Seward to Fairbanks
        and skirted the head of the inlet for many miles. The Tanaina
        Indians were one of the last groups in Alaska to receive
        attention from ethnologists.

        Population.- Mooney (1928) estimated that there were about 1,200
        Tanaina in 1740. In 1818, 1,471 natives were enumerated in Cook
        Inlet. In 1825 Baron Wrangell returned 1,299. Veniaminoff (1840)
        gave 1,628 and in 1860 the Holy Synod returned 937. In 1869
        Halleck and Colyer returned the grossly exaggerated estimate of
        25,000. The census of 1880 returned 614 and that of 1890, 724.
        Mooney estimated 890 in 1900. (See Ahtena.)

        
Tanana
. Named from the Tanana River.

        Connections.- The Tanana belonged to the northern division of the
        Athapascan linguistic family. They were formerly erroneously
        classed among the Kutchin tribes.

        Location.- "The drainage of the lower Tanana River below the Tok
        River, the region about the confluence of the Tanana and Yukon,
        and the region along the latter river above the confluence."
        [Osgood, 1936.]

                           Subdivisions and Villages

        Clatchotin, on Tanana River.

        Huntlatin, on Tanana River.

        Minchumina Lake people, around the lake of that name.

        Nuklukayet, a rendezvous for various tribes, on the north bank of
        the Yukon just below the mouth of the Tanana.

        Nukluktana, on Tanana River just below Tutlut River.

        Tatsa, on Yukon River.

        Tolwatin, on Tanana River.

        Tozikakat, north bank of the Yukon at the mouth of Tozi River.

        Tutlut, at the junction of Tutlut and Tanana Rivers.

        Weare, at the mouth of Tanana River.

        Population.- Mooney (1928) estimates a possible population of 500
        in 1740 including the Nabesna. Richardson (1851) cut this
        estimate to 100. Dall (1870) made it 500, Petroff (1884), 300-
        700, Allen (1887) 600, the census of 1890, 373. In 1900, 370 were
        given and by the census of 1910, 415. (See Ahtena.)

        
Tennuth-kutchin
. Meaning "middle people." Also called:

             Birch Creek Kutchin, Osgood (1934, p. 172).
             Birch River Indians, Whymper (1868, p. 255).
             Gens de Bouleaux, Dall (1870 p. 431).

        Connections.- The Tennuth-Kutchin were a tribe of the Kutchin
        group of the northern division of the Athapascan stock.

        Location.- In the region of Birch Creek.

        Population.- Mooney (1929) estimated that there were about 100
        Tennuth-Kutchin in 1740. They have long been extinct having been
        swept away in 1863, according to Dall (1870), by an epidemic of
        scarlet fever. (See Kutcha-kutchin.)

        
Tlingit (literally Lingi't)
. Signifying "people," in their own
        language. Also called:

             Kolushan, a name given to them as a linguistic family by
        Powell (1891), originally a Russian or Aleut term referring to
        the labrets worn by their women.

        Connections.- The Tlingit were originally constituted into one
        linguistic stock by Powell, but show resemblances to the
        Athapascan dialects and to Haida which have induced Sapir (1915)
        to class the three together as the Na-dene. The exact nature of
        the relationship is still disputed.

        Location.- All of the coast and islands of Alaska from Yakutat
        Bay inclusive southward with the exception of the southern ends
        of Prince of Wales and Dall Islands and Annette Island, though
        these latter have been alienated from them only in comparatively
        recent times.

                          Subdivisions and Villages

        Auk, on Stephens Passage and Douglas and Admiralty Islands,
        including the following villages:

               Anchguhlsu, opposite the north end of Douglas Island.
               Tsantikihin, on the site of the present Juneau.

        Chilkat, about the head of Lynn Canal, including these villages:

               Chilkoot, on the northeast arm of Lynn Canal.
               Deshu, at the head of Lynn Canal.
               Dyea, at the modern place of the same name.
               Katkwaahltu, on Chilkat River about 6 miles from its
        mouth.
               Klukwan on Chilkat River 20 miles from its mouth.
               Skagway at the site of the modern town of that name at the
        head of Lynn Canal.
               Yendestake, at the mouth of Chilkat River.
               Gonaho, at the mouth of Alsek River.
               Hehl, on Behm Canal.

        Henya or Hanega, on the west coast of Prince of Wales Island
        between Tlevak Narrows and Sumner Strait, including the following
        villages:

               Klawak, on the west coast of Prince of Wales Island.
               Shakan, a summer village on the northwest coast of Prince
        of Wales Island.
               Tuxican, on a narrow strait on the northwest coast of
        Prince of Wales Island.

        Huna, on Cross Sound, encamping in summer northward beyond Lituya
        Bay, with these villages:

               Akvetskoe, a summer village on Lituya Bay.
               Gaudekan, the chief town, now usually called Huna, in Port
        Frederick on the north shore of Chichagof Island.
               Hukanuwu, on the north side of Cross Sound between the
        mainland and Chichagof Island.
               Klughuggue, given by Petroff (1884) as a town on Chichagof
        Island but probably identical with one given by Krause (1885) on
        the opposite mainland, and perhaps the same as Tlushashakian.
               Kukanuwu, on the north side of Cross Sound.
               Tlushashakian, on the north side of the west entrance to
        Cross Sound.

        Hutsnuwu, on the west and south coasts of Admiralty Island, with
        these villages:

               Angun, north of Hood Bay, Admiralty Island.
               Killisnoo, on Killisnoo Island near Admiralty Island.
               Nahltushkan, on Whitewater Bay, on the west coast of
        Admiralty Island.
               Kake, on Kupreanof Island, the designation being sometimes
        extended to cover Kuiu and Sumdum, and including a village of the
        same name.
               Kuiu, on Ruiu Island, with a village of the same name in
        Port Beauclerc.
               Sanya, about Cape Fox, their village being called Gash, at
        Cape Fox.

        Sitka, on the west coasts of Baranof and Chichagof islands, with
        these villages:

                Dahet.
                Keshkunuwu.
                Kona.
                Kushtahekdaan.
                Old Sitka, a summer camp on Baranof Island.
                Sitka, site of the modern town.
                Tlanak.
                Tluhaiyikan, as indicated by the native word straight
        opposite Mount Edgecombe.
                Silver Bay, a summer camp.

        Stikine, on Stikine River and the neighboring coasts, with these
        villages:

                Kahltcatlan, a place called also Old Wrangell.
                Katchanaak, on the site of modern Wrangell.
                Shakes' Village, on Etolin Island.

        Sumdum, at Port Houghton, the village and location being the
        same. Taku, on Taku River and Inlet, Stevens Channel, and
        Gatineau Channel, with the following villages:

               Sikanasankian, on Taku Inlet.
               Takokakaan, at the mouth of Taku River, as the name itself
        implies.

        Tongass, at the mouth of Portland Canal, on the north side, with
        a village of the same name on Tongass Island, Alexander
        Archipelago. Yakutat, principally about Yakutat Bay but extending
        westward in later times to the mouth of Copper River, including
        these villages:

               Chilkat, a village or group of villages on Controller Bay.
               Gutheni, north of Dry Bay.
               Hlahayik, on Yakutat Bay behind an island called Hlaha
        which gave it the name.
               Yakutat, on Yakutat Bay.

        History.- According to native tradition, some Tlingit families
        came into their present territories from the coast further south
        while others entered from the interior. In 1741 Chirikoff and
        Bering discovered the Tlingit country, and they were soon
        followed by other Russian explorers as well as by explorers and
        traders from Mexico, England, France, and New England. Among the
        noteworthy events of this period was the visit of La Perouse to
        Lituya Bay in 1786 and the tragic loss of two of his boats loaded
        with men in the tide rips at its entrance. In 1799 the Russians
        built a fort near the present Sitka. In 1802 the Sitka Indians
        rose upon this post, killed part of its inmates, and drove the
        rest away, but 2 years later Baranoff drove them from their fort
        in turn and established on its site a post which grew into the
        present Sitka, the capital successively of Russian America and
        Alaska Territory until 1906. Russian rule was so harsh that there
        were frequent outbreaks among the natives so long as the
        territory remained under their control. In 1836 to 1840 occurred
        a terrible epidemic of smallpox, brought up from the Columbia
        River, which swept away hundreds of Indians. In 1840 the Hudson's
        Bay Company took a lease from the Russian American Company of all
        their lands between Cape Spencer and latitude 54-40 N. In 1867
        the Tlingit were transferred with the rest of the Alaskan people
        to the jurisdiction of the United States and since then they have
        been suffering ever more rapid transformation under the
        influences of western civilization.

        Population.- Mooney (1928) estimated that there were 10,000
        Tlingit in 1740. Veniaminoff (1840) gave 5,850 for the year 1835,
        and an enumeration made by Sir James Douglas 4 years later showed
        5,455 exclusive of the Yakutat. In 1861 Lt. Wehrman of the
        Russian Navy reported 8,597 as the result of a census. Petroff
        (1884) in the census of 1880 gave 6,763, but the census of 1890
        showed only 4,583, not counting the Tlingitized Ugalakmiut. The
        census of 1910 returned 4,426; that of 1920, 3,895; and that of
        1930, 4,462.

        Connection in which they have become noted.- The Russian capital
        and the first American territorial capital Sitka was on Tlingit
        land, as is the later and present territorial capital Juneau. The
        ports of this tribe, especially those in the Chilkat country,
        figured prominently in the great Klondike rush.

        
Tranjik-kutchin
. Signifying "one who dwells along the river
        [i.e., the Black River]." Also called:

             Black River Kutchin, by Osgood (1936).
             Cache River People, by Cadzow (1925).

        Connections.- The Tranjik-kutehin belonged to the Kutchin group
        of tribes of the northern division of the Athapascan linguistic
        stock.

        Location.- In the country around Black River.

        History.- (See Kutcha-kutchin.)

        Population.- (See Kutcha-kutchin.)

        
Tsimshian
. The home of the Tsimshian is on Skeena River, British
        Columbia, and the coast to the southward. In 1887, however,
        Rev. William Duncan, missionary of the Church of England at
        Metlakatla, 15 miles south of Port Simpson, having become
        involved in difficulties with his superiors, moved to Annette
        Island, Alaska, with the greater part of the Indians who had been
        under his charge. A grant of land was subsequently obtained from
        the United States Government, and the Tsimshian have continued in
        occupancy. The census of 1910 reported 729; that of 1920, 842;
        and that of 1930, 845. (See Canada.)

        
Vunta-kutchin
. Signifying "those who dwell among the lakes."
        Also called:

             Crow River Kutchin, by Osgood (1934, p. 173), from a stream
        in their country.
             Gens des Rats, by Dall (1877, p. 31).
             Rat People, by Dall (1869, p. 261).
             Zjen-ta-Kouttchin, by Petitot (1891, p. 361), meaning
        "muskrat people," a name probably based on a legend, though a
        tributary of the Porcupine is called Rat River.

        Connections.- The Vunta-kutchin are one of the group of Kutchin
        tribes belonging to the northern division of the Athapascan
        linguistic family.

        Location.- On the middle course of Porcupine River and the
        country to the northward, including Old Crow Creek.

        Population.- Mooney (1928) estimated that the Vunta-Kutchin
        together with the Tukkutih-kutchin, and "Tutcone-kutchin"
        comprised a population of 2,200 in 1670, but they had been
        reduced to 1,700 in 1906 and the census of 1910 returned only 5
        under this name by itself. (See Kutcha-kutchin.)




        

Arizona -

 
 
        The Indian Tribes of North America by John R. Swanton

        
Apache
. Bands of Apache occupied the Gila River region in Arizona
        within historic times and periodically overran much of the
        territory of the State. (See New Mexico.)

        
Cocopa
. Significance of name unknown.

        Connections.- The Cocopa belong to the Yuman linguistic family
        a branch of the Hokan stock.

        Location.- About the mouth of Colorado River. (See also Mexico.)

                               Subdivisions

        River Cocopa and Mountain Cocopa. Cuculato and Llagas are also
        mentioned, the latter a name applied by the Spaniards to a group
        of villages.

                                 Villages

        Gifford (1923) reports as follows: "Settlement sites on W. bank
        of Colorado from Hardy confluence N. (when river flowed near
        Colonia, Lerdo): 1, A'u'ew-awa 2, Kwinyakwa'a; 3, Yishiyul,
        settlement of Halyikwamai in 1848; 4, Heyauwah, 5 miles N. of
        Yishiyul and opposite Colonialerdo (8 hours' slow walk from
        Colorado-Hardy confluence); 5, Amanyochilibuh; 6, Esinyamapawhai
        (Noche Buena of the Mexicans)." There was also a town called
        Hauwala below or above No. 5.

        "Settlement sites on W. bank of Hardy from confluence N: 1,
        Karukhap; 2 Awiahamoka; 3, Numischapsakal; 4, Eweshespil, 5,
        Tamanikwawa. (meaning 'mullet (tamanik) place') on lagoon 4 or 5
        miles SE of Cocopah mts; 6, awikukapa (Cocopa mt.); 10, Welsul;
        11, Awisinyai, northernmost Cocopa village, about 5 miles S. of
        Mexicali.

        "Lumholtz (p. 251) lists following Cocopa settlements in the
        first decade of 20th century; Noche Buena (20 families), Mexical
        (40-50 families), Pescador (15 families), Pvzo Vicente (more than
        100 families)."

        History.- Without question this tribe was first met by Hernando
        de Alarcon in 1540. They are mentioned by Onate in 1604-5, by
        Kino in 1701-2 under the name "Hogiopas," and by Francisco Garces
        in 1776. Most of their territory was outside of the limits of the
        United States, but a small part of it passed under United States
        Government control with the Gadsden Purchase. Those Cocopa who
        remained on the northern side of the International Boundary were
        placed on the Colorado River Reservation.

        Population.- Garces estimated 3,000 in 1776. In 1857 Heintzelman
        placed the former strength of the tribe at about 300 warriors.
        There are now said to be 800 in northern Baja California. There
        were 99 in the United States in 1930, and 41 in 1937.

        Halchidhoma. Significance unknown.

        Connections.- The Halchidhoma belonged to the Yuman branch of
        the Hokan linguistic stock and are said to have spoken the same
        language as the Yuma tribe and to have been closely connected
        also with the Maricopa.

        Location.- At various points On the Colorado River near the mouth
        of the Gila. (See also California.)

                                  Villages

        Asumpcion, a group of villages on or near the Colorado River, in
        California, more than 50 miles below the mouth of Bill Williams
        Fork.

        Lagrimas de San Pedro, a group of villages in the neighborhood of
        Asumpcion.

        San Antonio, in the same general location as Lagrimas but only 35
        or 40 miles below the mouth of Bill Williams Fork.

        Santa Coleta, a group of villages in the same region as Asumpcion
        and Lagrimas de San Pedro.

        History.- The Halchidhoma were probably encountered by Alarcon
        in 1540, though he does not mention them. In 1604-5 Onate found
        them occupying eight villages on the Colorado below the mouth of
        the Gila; Father Eusebio Eino in 1701-2 came upon them above the
        Gila, and by Garces' time (1776) their villages were scattered on
        both sides of the Colorado, beginning about 38 miles below Bill
        Williams' Fork nnd extending the same distance downstream. Later
        they moved farther north, along with the Kohuana, but were soon
        forced downstream again by the Mohave and ultimately took refuge
        with the Maricopa on Gila River, by whom they were ultimately
        absorbed.

        Population.- Mooney (1928) estimates 3,000 in 1680, but this is
        evidently based on Garces figure of 2,500 in 1776, which Kroeber
        (1920) believes much too high. Kroeber suggests about 1,000 as of
        the year 1770.

        
Halyikwamai
. Significance unknown. Also spelled Jallicumay,
        Quigyuma, Tlalliguamayas, Kikima (by Mason, 1940), and in
        various other ways.

        Connections.- The Halyikwamai belonged to the Yuman linguistic
        stock, their dialect being reported as close to Cocopa and
        Kohuana.

        Location.- (See History.)

                               Villages

        Presentacion, probably Quigyumn, on the west side of the Colorado
        River, in Baja California.

        San Casimiro, probably on the east bank of the Colorado River,
        above tidewater, in northwest Sonora, Mexico.

        San Felk de Valois, apparently on the east bank of the Rio
        Colorado, between its mouth and the junction of the Gila,
        probably about the present Arizona-Sonora boundary Tine.

        San Rudesindo, probably on the east bank of the Colorado River,
        just above its mouth, in northwestern Sonora, Mexico.

        Santa Rosa, a group of villages on the eastern side of the lower
        Rio Colorado, about latitude 32- 18' N., in northwestern Sonora,
        Mexico.

        History.- The Halyikwamai were discovered in 1540 by Alarcon,
        who calls them Quicama. In 1604-5 Onate found them in villages on
        the Colorado River below the mouth of the Gila River and above
        the Cocopa Indians. In 1762 they dwelt in a fertile plain, 10 or
        12 leagues in length, on the eastern bank of the Colorado, and
        here they were found by Father Garces in 1771 in a group of
        villages which he named Santa Rosa. By 1775, when he revisited
        the tribe, they had moved to the west side of the river, their
        first villages on the north being in the vicinity of Ogden's
        Landing, about latitude 32- 18' N., adjacent to the Kohuana. It
        is probable that they were finally absorbed by the Cocopa or some
        other Yuman people.

        Population.- Mooney (1928) estimates a population for the
        Halyikwamai in 1680 of 2,000, which is Garces' estimate in 1775.
        Ohate estimated 4,000-5,000 in 1605, but all of these figures are
        probably much too high.

        
Havasupai
. Signifying "blue (or green) water people," abbreviated
        into Supai. Also called.

             Ak'-ba-su'-pni, Walapai form of name.
             Ka'nfna, Coconino, Cosnino, Kokonino, Zuni name said to have
        been borrowed from the Hopi and to signify "pinon nut people."
             Nation of the Willows, so called by Cushing.
             Yabipai Jabesua, so called by Garces in 1776.

        Connections.- The Havasupai belong to the Yuman branch of the
        Hokan linguistic stock, being most closely connected with the
        Walapai, and next with the Yavapai.

        Location.- They occupy Cataract Canyon of the Colorado River,
        northwestern Arizona.

        History.- The nucleus of the Havasupai Tribe is believed to have
        come from the Walapai. The Cosnino caves on the upper Rio Verde,
        near the northern edge of Tonto Basin, central Arizona, were
        named for them, from a traditional former occupancy. Garces may
        have met some of these Indians in 1776, but definite notices of
        them seem to be lacking until about the middle of the last
        century. Leroux (1888) appears to have met one of this tribe in
        1851, and since then they have come increasingly to the knowledge
        of the Whites.

        Population. Mooney (1928) estimates about 300 Havasupai in
        1680, but Spier (1928) believes this figure somewhat too high. In
        1869, 300 were reported; in 1902, 233; in 1905, 174; in 1910,
        174; and in 1923, 184. In 1930, with the Walapai and Yavapai,
        they numbered 646. In 1937 the number estimated was 208.

        
Hopi
. Contracted from their own name Hopitu, "peaceful ones,"
        or Hopitu-shfnumu, "peaceful all people." Also called:

             A-ar-ke, or E-ar'-ke, Apache nnme, signifying "live high up
        on top of the mesas."
             Ah-mo-kai, Zuni name.
             Ai-yah-kln-nee, Navaho name.
             A'-mu-kwi-kwe, Zuni name, signifying "smallpox people."
             Asay or Osay, by Bustamante and Gallegos (1582).
             Bokeal, Sandia Tiwa name.
             Buhk'herk, Isleta Tiwa name for Tusayan.
             Bukln, Isleta name for the people.
             Eyanlni dine, Navaho name (Gatschet).
             Hapekn, a Zuni name, referring to excrement.
             Joso, Tewa name.
             Khoso, Santa Clara name.
             Kosho, Hano Tewa name.
             K'o-so-o, San Ildefonso Tewa name.
             Maastoetsjkwe, given by Ten Kate, signifying "the land of
        Masawe," god of the earth, given as the name of their country.
             Mastute'kwe, same as preceding.
             Moki, signifying "dead" in their own language, but probably
        from some other, perhaps a Keresan dialect.
             Topin-keua, said to be a Zuni name of which Tontonteac is a
        corruption.
             Tusayan, name of the province in which the Hopi lived, from
        Zuni Usayakue, "people of Usaya," Usaya referring to two of the
        largest Hopi villages.
             Whiwunai, Sandia Tiwa name.

        Connections.- The Hopi constitute a peculiar dialectic division
        of the Shoshonean branch of the Uto-Aztecan linguistic family,
        and they are the only Shoshonean people, so far as known, who
        ever took on a Pueblo culture, though the Tanoans are suspected
        of a remote Shoshonean relationship.

        Location.- On Three Mesas in northeastern Arizona.

                               Towns

        Awatobi (destroyed), on a mesa about 9 miles southeast of Walpi.

        Hano, occupied by Tewa (see Tewa Pueblos under New Mexico).

        Homolobi, near Winslow, was formerly occupied by the ancestors of
        various Hopi clans.

        Kisakobi, at the northwest side of the East Mesa.

        Kuchaptuvela, on the terrace of the First or East Mesa below the
        present Walpi village.

        Mishongnovi, on the Second or Middle Mesa.

        Moenkapi, about 40 miles northwest of Oraibi, a farming village
        of Oraibi.

        Oraibi, on the Third or West Mesa.

        Shipaulovi, on the Second or Middle Mesa.

        Shongopovi, on the Second or Middle Mesa.

        Sichomovi, on the First or East Mesa.

        Walpi, on the First or East Mesa.

        Kisatobi and Kuchaptuvela were successively occupied by the
        ancestors of the Walpi before the later Walpi was built.

        History.- According to tradition, the Hopi are made up of
        peoples who came from the north, east, and south. Their first
        contact with Europeans was in 1540, when Coronado, then at Zuni,
        sent Pedro de Tobar and Fray Juan de Padilla to visit them. They
        were visited by Antonio de Espejo in 1583, and in 1598 Juan de
        Onate, governor and colonizer of New Mexico, made them swear
        fealty and vassalage to the King of Spain. In 1629 a Franciscan
        mission was established at Awatobi, followed by others at Walpi,
        Shongopovi, Mishongnovi, and Oraibi. These were destroyed in the
        general Pueblo outbreak of 1680, and an attempt to reestablish a
        mission at Awatobi in 1700 led to its destruction by thc other
        pueblos. The pueblos of Walpi, Mishongnovi, and Shongopovi, then
        situated in the foothills, were probably abandoned about the time
        of the rebellion, and new villages were built on the adjacent
        mesas for defense against a possible Spanish attack which did not
        materialize. After the reconquest of the Rio Grande pueblos by
        Vargas, some of the people who formerly occupied them fled to the
        Hopi and built a pueblo called Payupki on the Middle Mesa. About
        the middle of the eighteenth century, however, they were taken
        back and settled in Sandia. About 1700 Hano was established on
        the East Mesa, near Walpi, by Tewa from near Abiquerque, N.M., on
        the invitation of the Walpians. About the time when the Payupki
        people returned to their old homes, Sichomovi was built on the
        First Mesa by clans from the Rio Grande, and Shipaulovi was
        founded by a colony from Shongopovi. The present Hopi Reservation
        was set aside by Executive order on December 16, 1882.

        Population.- Mooney (1928) estimates a Hopi population of 2,800
        in 1680. In 1890 the population of Oraibi was 905, and in 1900
        the other pueblos (exclusive of Hano) had 919. In 1904 the total
        Hopi population was officially given as 1,878. The Census of 1910
        returned 2,009, apparently including Hano, and the Report of the
        United States Indian office for 1923 gave 2,336. The United
        States Census of 1930 returned 2,752. In 1937 there were 3,248)
        including the Tewan Hano.

        Connection in which they have become noted.- The Hopi are noted
        as a tribe Shoshonean in language but Puebloan in culture, and
        also deserve consideration as one of the Pueblo divisions to
        which particular attention has been paid by ethnologists,
        including Fewkes, the Stevensons, Hough, Voth, Forde, Lowie, etc.
        Great popular attention has been drawn to them on account of the
        spectacular character of the Snake Dance held every 2 years.

        
Kohuana
. Significance unknown. Also given as Cajuenche, Cawina,
        and Quokim.

        Connetions.- The Kohuana belonged to the Yuman branch of the
        Hokan linguistic stock, spoke thc Cocopa dialect, and were also
        closely connected with the Halyikwamai.

        Location.- In 1775-76 the Kohuana lived on the east bank of the
        Colorado River below the mouth of the Gila, next to the
        Halyikwamai, their villages extending south to about latitude
        32- 33' N., and into southern California, at about latitude
        33- 08' N., next to the eastern Diegueno. (See also Mexico.)

                                 Villages

        Merced, a group of rancherias in northeastern Baja California,
        west of the Colorado and 4 leagues southwest of Santa Olalla, a
        Yuma village.

        San Jacome, probably Cajuenche, near the mountains, about
        latitude 33- 8' N., in southern California.

        San Sebastian, Cajuenche or Diegueffo, in southern California,
        latitude 33- 8' N., evidently at Salton Lake.

        History.- The Kohuana are the Coana mentioned by Hernando de
        Alarcon, who ascended the Colorado River in 1540. Juan de Onate
        visited them in 1604-5, and they are probably the Cutganas of
        Kino (1701-2), while Francisco Gares in 1776 reported that they
        were numerous and at enmity with the Cocopa. From Mohave
        tradition, it appears that at n somewhat later period they lived
        along the river near Parker together with the Halchidhoma, whom
        they followed to the fertile bottom lands higher up. Later the
        Mohave crowded them southward but still later compelled them to
        return to the Mohave country where they remained for 5 years. At
        the end of that period they determined to go downstream again to
        live with the Yuma; but, one of their number having been killed
        by the Yuma, they joined the Maricopa, with whom they ultimately
        became merged.

        Population.- Mooney (1928) estimates that there were 3,000
        Kohuana in 1680, the figure given by Garces in 1775-76. Kroeber
        (1920) believes these estimates are too high. In 1851 Bartlett
        reported 10 of this tribe living with the Maricopa, and,
        according to a Mohave informant of Kroeber's, there were 36 about
        1883.

        
Maricopa
. Significance of the name unknown. Also called:

             Atchihwa', Yavapai name (Gatschet 1877-92).
             Coeomaricopa, an old form.
             Cohpap, or Awo-pa-pa, Pima name.
             Pipatsje, own name, signifying "people."
             Si-ke-na, Apache name for Pima, Papago, and Maricopa,
        signifying "living in sand houses."
             Ta'hba, Yavapai name (Gatschet, 1877-92).
             Tchihogasat, Havasupai name.
             Widshi itikapa, Tonto name, also applied to Pima and Papago.

        Connections.- The Maricopa belong to the Yuman linguistic stock,
        a part of the Hokan family, and are said to be related most
        closely to the Yuma tribe proper and the Halchidhoma.

        Location.- On Gila River, with and below the Pima, to the mouth
        of the river. Anciently they are said to have had some rancherias
        in a valley west of the Colorado.

                                  Villages

        The following villages were all on the Gila River unless
        otherwise specified:

        Aicatum.                   San Bernadino, at Agua Caliente, near
        Amoque.                      the Gila River, another place on the
        Aopomue.                     river was called by the same name.
        Aqui.                      San Geronimo, 20 leagues from Merced
        Aquimundurech.               and 27 leagues from the Gila River.
        Aritutoc, on the north     San Martin, on the Gila River west of
          side at or near the            the Great Bend.
          present Oatman flat and
          the Great Bend of
          the river.               San Rafael, probably Maricopa, in
        Atiahigui.                    southern Arizona.
        Aycate.                    Sasabac.
        Baguiburisac, probably     Shobotarcham.
          Maricopa, near the
          Gila River.              Sibagoida, probably Maricopa,
        Caborh.                       location uncertain
        Caborica.                  Sibrepue.
        Cant, probably             Sicoroidag, on the Gila River
          Maricopa, not far                below Tucsani.
          below the mouth of
          Salt River.
        Choutikwuchik.             Soenadut.
        Coat, probably             Stucabitic.
          Maricopa, location
          uncertain.               Sudac.
        Cocoigui.                  Sudacsasaba.
        Cohate.                    Tadeovadui.
        Comarchdut.                Tahapit.
        Cusburidurch.              Toa.
        Cudurimuitac.              Toaedut.
        Dueztumac, about 120       Tota, probably Maricopa.
          miles above the
          mouth of the Gila.       Tuburch.
        Gohate.                    Tuburh, location uncertain.
        Guias.                     Tubutavia.
        Hinama, its people
          now on the south         Tucavi, perhaps identical
                                       with Tucsani.
          bank of Salt River
          east of the              Tucsani
          Mormon settlement
          of Lehi,                 Tucsasic.
          Maricopa County.         Tuesapit.
        Hiyayulge.                 Tumac, said to have been the
        Hueso Perado, with Pima,     wester-most Maricopa village on
          on the Pima and            the Gila River.
          Maricopa Reservation.
        Khauweshetawes.            Tuquisan.
        Kwatchampedau.             Tutomagoidag.
        Norchean.                  Uitorrum, a group of rancherias on the
        Noscario.                     south bank of the Gila River not
        Oitac.                        far west of the Great Bend.
        Ojiataibues.               Uparch.
        Pipiaca.                   Upasoitac, near the Great Bend of
        Pitaya.                       Gila River.
        Sacaton, mainly Pima,      Urchaoztac.
          on the Gila River about
          22 miles east of         Yayahaye.
          Maricopa Station.

        History.- The Maricopa are thought to have separated from the
        Yuma and to have moved slowly up the Colorado River to the lower
        Gila River; or, as later history would indicate, they may have
        been forced into this region by hostile tribes. They were
        encountered by Juan de Onate in 1604-5, and by Kino in 1701-2.
        From 1775 until recent times they were at war with the Yuma, and
        in 1857, in alliance with the Pima, they inflicted a severe
        defeat upon the Yuma near Maricopa Wells. A reservation was set
        apart for the Maricopa and Pima by Act of Congress February 28,
        1859; it was enlarged by Executive order of August 31, 1876, but
        was revoke and other lands were set apart by Executive order of
        June 14, 1879. This was again enlarged by Executive orders May 5,
        1882, and November 15, 1883. No treaty was ever made with them.

        Population.- Mooney (1928) estimates that there were 2,000
        Maricopa in 1680. Venegas (1758) says that in 1742 there were
        about 6,000 Pima and "Cocomaricopa" on Gila River, and in 1775
        Garces estimates a population of 3,000 Maricopa. In 1905 there
        were 350 under the Pima School Superintendent. The census of 1910
        gives 386, and the Report of the United States Indian Office for
        1923, 394. The census of 1930 returned 310, and thc Report of the
        United States Indian Office of 1937, 339.

        Connection in which they have become noted.- The name of the
        Maricopa is preserved in that of Maricopa County, Ariz., and in
        the name of a post village in Pinal County and another in Kern
        County, Calif.

        
Mohave
. From a native word "hamakhava," referring to the Needles
        and signifying " three mountains." Also given as Amojave,
        Jamajabs. Synonyms are:

             Naks'-at, Pima and Papago name.
             Soyopas, given by Font (1775).
             Tzi-na-ma-a, given as their own name "before they came to
        the Colorado River."
             Wamakava, Havasupai name.
             Wili idahapa, Tulkepaya name.

        Connections.- The Mohave belonged to the Yuman linguistic family.

        Location.- On both sides of the Colorado River- though chiefly
        on the east side- between the Needles and the entrance to Black
        Canyon.

                                   Villages

        Pasion, a group of rancherias on the east bank of the Colorado,
        below the present Fort Mohave.

        San Pedro, on or near the west bank of the Colorado, about 8
        miles northwest of Needles, Calif.

        Santa Isabel, a group of rancherias situated at or in the
        vicinity of the present Needles.

        History.- Possibly Alarcon may have reached the Mohave territory
        in 1540. At any rate, Onate met them in 1604, and in 1775-76
        Garces found them in the above-named villages. No treaty was made
        with them by the United States Government, but by Act of March 3,
        1865, supplemented by Executive orders in 1873, 1874, and 1876,
        the Colorado River Reservation was established and it was
        occupied by the Mohave, Chemehuevi, and Kawia.

        Population.- Mooney (1928) gives, 3,000 Mohave in 1680, and
        Kroeber (1925) the same as of 1770, the estimate made by Garces
        in 1775-76. About 1834 Leroux estimated 4,000. In 1905 their
        number was officially given as 1,589, of whom 508 were under the
        Colorado River School Superintendent, 856 under the Fort Mohave
        School Superintendent, 50 under the San Carlos Agency, and about
        175 at Camp McDowell, on the Verde River. The Indians at Fort
        Mohave and Camp McDowell, however, were apparently Yavapai,
        commonly known as Apache Mohave. The census of 1910 gives
        1,058 true Mohave. The United States Indian Office Report for
        1923 seems to give 1,840, including Mohave, Mohave Apache, and
        Chemehuevi. The census of 1930 returned 854, and the Report of
        the United States Office of Indian Affairs for 1937, 856.

        Connection in which they have become noted.- The name Mohave has
        been preserved in the designation of the Mohave Desert and Mohave
        River in California, and Mohave County, Ariz., and also in the
        name of a post-village in Arizona. There is also a post village
        named Mojave in Kern County, Calif.

        
Navaho
. The Navaho occupied part of the northeastern section of
        Arizona. (See New Mexico.)

        
Paiute
. The southern or true Paiute occupied or hunted over some
        of the northernmost sections of Arizona. (See Nevada.)

        
Papago
. Signifying "bean people," from the native words papah,
        "beans," and ootam, "people." Also called:

             Saikinne, Si'-ke-na, Apache name for Pima, Papago, and
        Maricopa.
             Tah'b,a, Yavapai name.
             Texpamais, Maricopa name.
             Tono-oohtam, own name, signifying "people of the desert."
             Vidshi itikapa, Tonto name.

        Connections.- The Papago belong to the Piman-branch of the
        Uto-Aztecan linguistic stock and stand very close to the Pima.

        Locution.- In the territory south and southeast of the Gila
        River, especially south of Tucson the main and tributary valleys
        of the Santa Cruz River; and extending west; and southwest across
        the desert waste known as the Papagueria, into Sonora, Mexico.

                            Subdivisions and Villages

        Aenchin, location uncertain.

        Alcaide, probably in Pima County.

        Ana, probably in Pima County.

        Anicam, probably in Pima County.

        Areitorae, south of Sonorita, Sonora, Mexico.

        Ati, on the west bank of Rio Altar, between Uquitoa and Tubutama,
        just south of the Arizona boundary.

        Babasaqui, probably Papago, 3 miles above Imuris, between
        Cocospera and Magdalena, Sonora, Mexico.

        Bacapa, in northwestern Sonora, Mexico, slightly southeast of
        Carrizal.

        Baipia, slightly northwest of Caborca, probably on the Rio Altar,
        northwestern Sonora, Mexico.

        Bajio, location uncertain.

        Batequi east of the Rio Altar in northwestern Sonora, Mexico.

        Boca dei Arroyo, probably in Pima County.

        Caborica, on the Gila River.

        Caca Chimir, probably in Pima County.

        Cahuabi, in Arizona near the Sonora border.

        Canoa, between Tubac and San Xavier del Bac, on Rio Santa Cruz.

        Casca, probably in Pima County.

        Charco, probably identical with Chioro.

        Chiora, probably in Pima County.

        Chuba, location uncertain.

        Coca, location uncertain.

        Comohuabi, in Arizona on the border of Sonora, Mexico.

        Cops, west of the Rio San Pedro, probably in the vicinity of the
        present Arivaca, southwest of Tubac.

        Cubac, in the neighborhood of San Francisco Atl, west from the
        present Tucson.

        Cuitoat, between San Xavier del Bac and the Gila River.

        Cujant, in northwest Sonora, between the mouth of the Rio Gila
        and Sonorita.

        Cumaro, southern Arizona near the Sonora border.

        Elogio, probably in Pima County.

        Fresnal, probably in Pima County.

        Guadalupe, about 10 leagues south of Areitorae.

        Gubo, probably Papago, 13 leagues east of Sonorita, just below
        the Arizona boundary.

        Guitciabaqui, on the west bank of the Santa Cruz River, near the
        present Tucson.

        Juajona, near San Xavier del Bac, southern Arizona.

        Junostaca, near San Xavier del Bac.

        Macombo, probably in Pima County.

        Mata, probably Papago, north of Caborica.

        Mesquite, probably in Pima County.

        Milpais, location uncertain.

        Nariz, probably in Pima County.

        Oapars, in Arizona between San Xavier del Bac and the Gila River.

        Ocaboa, location uncertain.

        Oisur, on the Santa Cruz River, 5 or 6 leagues north of San
        Xavier del Bac, southern Arizona.

        Onia, probably in Pima County.

        Ooltan, in northwest Sonora, Mexico, 3 leagues northwest of
        Busanic.

        Otean, location uncertain.

        Perigua, Arizona, south of the Gila River.

        Perinimo, probably in Pima County.

        Piato, probably the same as Soba, in the region of Tubutama and
        Caborica, Sonora, Mexico.

        Pitic, on the Rio Altar, northwest Sonora.

        Poso Blanco, in Arizona south of the Gila River.

        Poso Verde, south of the Arizona-Sonora boundary, opposite Oro
        Blanco, Ariz.

        Purificacion, probably Papago, near the Arizona-Sonora boundary,
        12 leagues from Agua Escondida, probably in a southeasterly
        direction.

        Quitovaquita, on the headwaters of Rio Salado of Sonora, near the
        Arizona-Sonora boundary line.

        Raton, location uncertain.

        San Bonifacio, probably Papago, south of the Gila River between
        San Angelo and San Francisco, in the present Arizona.

        San Cosme, probably Papago, directly north of San Xavier del Bac,
        on the Santa Cruz River, Ariz.

        San Ignacio, with Pima, on the north bank of Rio San Ignacio,
        latitude 30- 45' N., longitude 111x W., Sonora, Mexico.

        San Ildefonso, 4 leagues northwest of Caborica, Sonora, Mexico.

        San Lazaro, probably Papago, on the Rio Santa Cruz in longitude
        110- 30' W., just below the Arizona-Sonora boundary.

        San Luis Babi, in northwest Sonora, Mexico, between Busanic and
        Cocospera.

        San Martin, probably Papago, on the Gila River, west of the Great
        Bend of the Colorado.

        San Rafael, in southern Arizona near the headwaters of the Rio
        Salado of Sonors.

        Santa Barbara, probably Papago, 4 miles southwest of Pusanic,
        near the head-waters of the north branch of the Rio Altar, in
        Sonora, Mexico.

        Santa Rosa, south of the Gila River and west of Tucson.

        Saric, probably Papago, on the west bank of Rio Altar, in
        northern Sonora, Mexico.

        Saucita, in southern Arizona.

        Shuuk, or Pima, on the Gila River Reservation, southern Arizona.

        Sierra Blanca, probably in Pima County.

        Soba, a large body of Papago, including the villages of
        Carborica, Batequi, Mats, Pitic, and San Ildefonso.

        Sonoita, on the headwaters of the Rio Salado of Sonora, just
        below the Arizona-Sonora boundary.

        Tachilta, in southern Arizona or northern Sonora.

        Tacquison, on the Arizona-Sonora boundary.

        Tecolote, in southwestern Pima County, Ariz., near the Mexican
        border.

        Tubasa, probably on the Rio Santa Cruz River between San Xavier
        del Bac and the Gila River, southern Arizona.

        Tubutama, on the eastern bank of the northern branch of the Rio
        Altar, in northwest Sonora, Mexico.

        Valle, probably in Pima County.

        Zuniga, probably Papago, in northwest Sonora, Mexico.

        History.- Father Eusebio Kino was probably the first while man
        to visit the Papago, presumably on his first expedition in 1694.
        Their subsequent history has been nearly the same as that of the
        Pima, except that they were not brought quite as much in contact
        with the Whites.

        Population.- Mooney (1928) places the number of Papago at 6,000
        in 1680. In 1906 they were reported as follows: Under the Pima
        School Superintendent, 2,233; under the farmer at San Xavier, 523
        allottees on the reservation and 2,225 in Pima County. In
        addition, 859 Papago were officially reported in Sonora, Mexico,
        in 1900, probably an underestimate. In 1910, 3,798 were reported
        in the United States, but the Report of the United States Indian
        Office for 1923 gives 5,672; the 1930 census, 5,205; and the
        Indian Office Report for 1937, 6,305.

        
Pima
. Signifying "no" in the Nevome dialect and incorrectly
        applied through misunderstanding by the early missionaries. Also
        called:

             A-a'tam, own name, signifying "people," or, to distinguish
        them from the Papago, A'-a'tam a'kimult, "river people."
             Nashteise, Apache name, signifying "live in mud houses."
             Painya, probably name given by Havasupai.
             Saikine, Apache name, signifying "living in sand (adobe)
        houses," also applied to Papago and Maricopa.
             Tex-pas, Maricopa name.
             Tihokahans, Yavapai name
             Widshi iti'kapa, Tonto-Yuma name.

        Connections.- The Pima gave their name to the Piman linguistic
        stock of Powell, which is now recognized to be a subdivision of
        the great Uto-Aztecan stock, also including the Nahuatlan and
        Shoshonean families. The tribes connected most intimately with
        thc Pima were the Papago (see above) and the Quahatika (q. v.),
        and after them the so-called Pima Bajo or Nevome of Mexico.

        Location.- In the valleys of the Gila and Salt Rivers.
        (See also Mexico.)

                              Subdivisions

        Formerly the name Pima was applied to two tribes called
        respectively the Pima Bajo and Pima Alto, but the former, living
        chiefly in Sonora, Mexico, are now known as Nevome, the term Pima
        being restricted to the Pima Alto.

                               Villages

        Agua Escondida, probably Pima or Papago, southwest of Tubac,
        southwestern Arizona.

        Agua Fria, probably Pima, or. Gila River Reservation.

        Aquitun, 5 miles west of Picacho, on the border of the sink of
        the Santa Cruz River.

        Aranca, two villages, location unknown.

        Arenal, probably Pima, on the Pima and Maricopa Reservation, Gila
        River.

        Arivaca, west of Tubao.

        Arroyo Grande, southern Arizona.

        Bneuancos, 7 leagues south of the mission of Guevavi,
        northwestern Sonora, Mexico.

        Bisani, 8 leagues southwest of Caborica, Sonora, Mexico.

        Blackwater.

        Bonostac, on the upper Santa Cruz River, below Tucson.

        Busanic, southwest of Guevavi, near the Arizona-Sonora boundary,
        latitude 31- 10' N. Longitude 111- 10' W.

        Cachanila, probably Pima, on the Pima and Maricopa Reservation,
        Ariz.

        Casa Blanca, on the Gila.

        Cerrito, probably Pima, on the Pima and Maricopa Reservation,
        Ariz.

        Cerro Chiquito, probably Pima, on the Pima and Maricopa
        Reservation, Ariz.

        Chemisez, on thc Gila.

        Chupatak, in southern Arizona.

        Chutikwuchik.

        Chuwutukawutuk, in southern Arizona.

        Cocospera, on the headwaters of the Rio San Ignacio, latitude
        31 N., Sonora, Mexico.

        Comac, on the Gila River, 3 leagues (miles?) below the mouth of
        Salt River, Ariz.

        Estancia, 4 leagues south of the mission of Saric, which was just
        south of the Arizona boundary.

        Gaibanipitea, probably Pima, on a hill on the west bank of the
        San Pedro River, probably identical with the ruins known as Santa
        Cruz, west of Tombstone, Ariz.

        Gutubur, locality unknown.

        Harsanykuk, at Sacaton Flats, southern Arizona.

        Hermho, on the north side of Salt River, 3 miles from Mesa,
        Maricopa County, Ariz.

        Hiatam, north of Maricopa Station on the Southern Pacific R. R.,
        southern Arizona.

        Hormiguero, probably Pima, on the Pima and Maricopa Reservation,
        Ariz.

        Huchiltchik, below Santa Ana, on the north bank of the Gila.

        Hueso Parado, with Maricopa, on the Pima and Maricopa
        Reservation, Ariz.

        Imuris, near the eastern bank of Rio San Ignacio, or Magdalena,
        latitude 30- 50' N. longitude 110- 50' W., in the present Sonora,
        Mexico.

        Judac, on the Gila.

        Kamatukwucha, at the Gila crossing.

        Kamit, in southern Arizona.

        Kawoltukwucha, west of the Maricopa and Phoenix R. R., in
        Maricopa County, Ariz.

        Kikimi, on the Gila River Reservation.

        Kookupvansik, in southern Arizona.

        Mange, on the Gila.

        Merced, northeast of San Rafael, in what is now southern Arizona.

        Nacameri, on the east bank of Rio Horcasitas, Sonora, Mexico.

        Napeut, on the north bank of the Gila.

        Ocuca, in Sonora, Mexico, near the Rio San Ignacio, northwest of
        Santa Ana.

        Oquitoa, on the Rio del Altar, northwestern Sonora, Mexico.

        Ormejea, in southern Arizona.

        Oskakumukchochikam, in southern Arizona.

        Oskuk, on the Gila.

        Peepchiltk, northeast of Casa Blanca, southern Arizona.

        Pescadero, in northern Sonora, Mexico.

        Petaikuk, in southern Arizona.

        Pitac, on the Gila.

        Potlapigua, about Babispe, Baserac, and the frontier in Sonora,
        Mexico, but this was Opata territory.

        Remedios, a mission on the San Ignacio branch of the Rio
        Asuncion, in Sonora, Mexico.

        Rsanuk, about 1 mile east of Sacaton Station, on the Maricopa and
        Phoenix R. R., southern Arizona.

        Rsotuk, northwest of Casa Blanca, southern Arizona.

        Sacaton, on the Gila, about 22 miles east of Maricopa Stalion and
        16 miles north of Casa Grande Station on the Southern Pacific R.
        R., Ariz.

        San Andres Coata, near the junction of the Gila and Salado
        Rivers, Ariz.

        San Fernando, 9 leagues east of the ruins of Casa Grande, near
        the Gila.

        San Francisco Ati, west of the Santa Cruz River, Ariz.

        San Francisco de Pima, 10 or 12 leagues above the Rio Asuncion
        from Pitic, about latitude 31 N., Sonora, Mexico.

        San Serafin, northwest of San Xavier del Bac, southern Arizona.

        Santan, on the north bank of the Gila, opposite the Pima Agency.

        Santos Angeles, in Sonora, Mexico.

        Saopuk, at The Cottonwoods, on the Gila River.

        Sepori, south of the Gila River, Ariz.

        Shakaik, on the north side of the Gila, northwest of Casa Blanca.

        Statannyik, on the south bank of the Gila, between Vaaki (Casa
        Blanca) and Huchiltchik.

        Stukamasoosatick, on the Gila River Reservation.

        Sudacon, on the Gila River, Pinal County, Ariz., between Casa
        Grande and a point 10 leagues below.

        Tatsituk, about Cruz's store in southern Arizona.

        Taumaturgo.

        Tubuscabors, on or near the Gila River, southern Arizona.

        Tucson, probably with Papago and Sobaipuri, on the site of modern
        Tucson.

        Tucubavia, on the headwaters of Rio Altar, northern Sonora,
        Mexico.

        Tutuetac, about 16 miles northwest of Tucson and west of the
        Santa Cruz River, in southern Arizona.

        Uturituc, on the Gila and probably on the site of the present
        Sacaton.

        Wechurt, at North Blackwater, southern Arizona.

        History.- According to native tradition, the Pima originated in
        the Salt River Valley and spread later to the Gila River. They
        attribute the large adobe ruins in their country, including the
        Casa Grande, to their ancestors, and tell stories of their
        occupancy of them, but the connection is still in doubt. The
        Nevome and Opata of the Altar, Magdalena. and Sonora Rivers are
        said to have sprung from Pima colonies. They claim that their old
        manner of life was ended by three bands of foreigners from the
        east, who destroyed their pueblos, devastated their fields, and
        killed or enslaved many of their people. The rest fled to the
        mountains, and when they returned they did not rebuild the
        substantial adobe structures which they had formerly occupied,
        but lived in dome-shaped lodges of pliable poles covered with
        thatch and mud. Russell (1908) considers it unlikely that
        Coronado encountered the Pima, but in 1694 Father Eusebio
        Francisco Kino reached the Casa Grande and undoubtedly met them.
        Under his inspiration, an expedition was sent to the Gila in 1697
        to ascertain the disposition of the tribe. In 1698 he again
        visited them and between that date and 1702 entered their country
        four times more. In 1731 Fathers Felipe Segresser and Juan
        Bautista Grashoffer took charge of the missions of San Xavier del
        Bac and San Miguel de Guevavi and became the first permanent
        Spanish residents of Arizona. Padre Ignacio Javier Keller visited
        the Pima villages in 1736-37 and in 1743, and Sedelmayr reached
        the Gila in 1750. The first military force to be stationed among
        the Pima was a garrison of 50 men at Tubac on the Santa Cruz. The
        presidio was moved to Tucson about 1776 and in 1780 it was
        increased to hold 75 men. Between 1768 and 1776 Father Francisco
        Garces made five trips from Xavier del Bac to the Pimas and
        beyond. In 1851 parties of the Boundary Survey Commission passed
        down the Gila River, and J. R. Bartlett, the American
        Commissioner, has left an excellent description of the Pima
        Indians (Bartlett, 1854). After the California gold rush began,
        the Pima frequently assisted parties of explorers and travelers
        who were making the southern route, and they often protected them
        from the Apache. In 1853 the Gadsden Purchase transferred the
        Pima to the jurisdiction of the United States. Surveys for a
        railroad through Pima territory were made in 1854 and 1855, but
        it was not constructed until 1879. In the meantime the Pima were
        subjected to contact with White outlaws and border ruffians of
        the worst description, and White settlers threatened to absorb
        their supplies of water. In 1857 the first United States Indian
        Agent for the territory acquired by the Gadsden Purchase was
        appointed. In 1871 the first school among them was opened.

        Population.- Mooney (1928) estimates that there were 4,000 Pima
        in 1680. In 1775 Garces placed the number of those on the Gila
        River at 2,500. In 1906 there were 3,936 in all; in 1910,
        according to the United States Census, 4,236; and in 1923,
        according to the Report of the United States Indian Office,
        5,592. The 1930 census returned 4,382. The Indian Office reported
        5,170 in 1937.

        Connections in which they have become noted.- Pima County, Ariz.,
        and a post town in Graham County, Ariz., preserve the name of the
        Pima, which has also been made familiar to ethnographers and
        geographers by the use to which it has been put in the Powell
        classification to cover a supposed linguistic stock. There is
        little doubt, however, that this supposed stock is merely a part
        of a much larger stock, the Uto-Aztecan.

        
Quakatika
. Significance unknown. Also spelled Kohatk.

        Connections.- The Quahatika belonged to the Piman division of the
        Uto-Aztecan stock, and were most closely related to the Pima, of
        which tribe they are said to have been a branch.

        Location.- In the desert of southern Arizona, 50 miles south of
        the Gila River.

                                Villages

        The chief Quahatika settlement is Quijotoa, in the western part
        of Pima County, southern Arizona. Early in the eighteenth century
        they are said to have shared the village of Aquitun with the
        Pima. (See Pima.)

        History.- The history of the Quahatika has, in the main, been
        parallel with that of the Pima and Papago (q. v.). They are said
        to have left Aquitun about 1800, and to have introduced cattle
        among the Pima from the Mexicans about 1820.

        Population.- The Quahatika seem to have been enumerated with the
        Pima.

        
Sobaipuri
. Significance unknown. Also called:

             Resarsavina, Pima name, signifying "spotted."

        Connections.- The Sobaipuri were intimately connected with, if
        not a part of, the Papago, of the Piman division of the
        Uto-Aztecan linguistic stock.

        Location.- In the main and tributary valleys of the San Pedro and
        Santa Cruz Rivers, between the mouth of the San Pedro River and
        the ruins of Casa Grande, and possibly eastward of this area in
        southern Arizona.

                               Villages

        Alamos. on Rio Santa Cruz, southern Arizona.

        Aribaiba, on the San Pedro River, not far from its junction with
        the Gila.

        Babisi, probably Sobaipuri, at the southern boundary near Suamca.

        Baicadeat, on the San Pedro River, Ariz.

        Busac, probably Sobaipuri, apparently on Arivaipa Creek, a
        tributary of the San Pedro, east of old Camp Grant, Ariz.

        Camani, probably Sobaipuri, on the Gila River, not far from Casa
        Grande, Ariz.

        Gausac, on the San Pedro.

        Comarsuta, on the San Pedro, between its mouth and its junction
        with Arivaipa Creek.

        Esqugbaag, probably Sobaipuri, on or near the San Pedro, near the
        Arizona-Sonora boundary.

        Guevnvi, on the west bank of the Santa Cruz, below Tubac, at or
        near the present Nogales.

        Jiaspi, on the western bank of San Pedro, probably near the
        present Prospect, Ariz.

        Juamalturgo, or Pima, in Arizona south of the ruins of Casa
        Grande.

        Muiva, on the San Pedro, probably near the mouth of Arivaipa
        Creek.

        Ojio, on the eastern bank of the San Pedro River, near its
        junction with the Gila River and not far from the present
        Dudlevville, Ariz.

        Optuabo, probably Sobaipuri, near the present Arizona-Sonora
        boundary and probably in Arizona.

        Quiburi, on the western bank of the San Pedro, perhaps not far
        from the present Benson, Ariz.

        Quiquiborica, on the Santa Cruz, 6 leagues south of Guevavi, near
        the Arizona-Sonora boundary.

        Reyes, probably Sobaipuri, on the Santa Cruz, in the present
        southern Arizona.

        San Angelo, near the western bank of the Santa Gruz, below its
        mouth, in southern Arizona.

        San Clemente, probably Sobaipuri, on the western bank of the
        Santa Cruz, north of the present Tucson, Ariz.

        San Felipe, at the junction of the Santa Cruz and Gila Rivers.

        San Salvador, on the San Pedro River, above Quiburi, southern
        Arizona.

        San Xavier del Bac, on Santa Cruz, 9 miles south of Tucson in the
        northeast corner of what is now the Papago Reservation.

        Santa Eulalia, probably Sobaipuri, slightly northwest of Busanic,
        just south of the Arizona-Sonora boundary line.

        Sonoita, on the Santa Cruz, north of the present Nogales and 7
        leagues east northeast of Guevavi.

        Suamca, on the headwaters of thc Santa Cruz, in the vicinity of
        Terrenate, Sonora, Mexico, just below the Arizona-Sonora boundary
        line.

        Tubo, probably Sobaipuri, apparently on Arivaipa Creek, a
        tributary of the San Pedro River, east of old Camp Grant, Ariz.

        Tumacacori, probably Sobaipuri, on the Santa Cruz, south of Tubac
        and 8 leagues north northwest of Guevavi.

        Turisai, probably Sobaipuri, probably on or near the Santa Cruz
        River, southern Arizona.

        Tusonimon, about 4 leagues west of Casa Grande, near the Gila
        River.

        Tutoida, on the San Pedro, probably between Arlvaipa Creek and
        the Gila.

        History.- The Sobaipuri were visited by Kino, 1694-1702, and
        missions were established among them, but at a later period the
        tribe was broken up by the Apache and seems to have sought refuge
        among the Papago, with whom it became merged.

        Population.- Mooney (1928) estimates that there were 600
        Sobaipuri in 1680. They are now extinct as an independent tribe.

        
Tonto
. This name has been applied to a number of distinct groups
        of Apache and Yuman peoples. It is said to have been given to a
        mixture of Yavapai, Yuma, and Maricopa, with some Pinaleno
        Apache, placed on the Verde River Reservation, Ariz., in 1873,
        and transferred to the San Carlos Reservation in 1875; also to a
        body of Indians, descended mostly from Yavapai men and Pinaleno
        women. (See New Mexico.)

        
Walapai
. From the native word Xawalapaiya, "pine-tree folk" (fide
        J. P. Harrington). Also called:

             E-pa, by A. Hrdlicka (information, 1906), given as their own
        name.
             Gualiba, by Garces in 1776 (Diary, p. 404, 1906); Yavapai
        name.
             Hawalapai, by Curtis (1907-9, vol. 2, p. 116).
             Jaguallapai, by Garces in 1776 (Diary, p. 308, 1900).
             Mataveke-Paya, by Corbusier MS. p. 27. Meaning "people to
        the north" (?); Yavapai name.
             Oohp, by Ten Kate (1885, p. 160), Pima name.
             Paxuado ameti, by Gatschet (1886, p. 86), meaning "people
        far down the river," Yavapai name.
             Seta Koxniname, by Ten Kate (1884, p. 9), Hopi name
             Tabkepaya- Gatschet (1883, p. 124), Yavapai name;
        abbreviated from Mataveke-Paya.
             Tiqui-Llapais, by Domeneeh (1860, vol. 1, p. 444).

        Connections.- The Walapai belonged to the Yuman branch of the
        Hokan linguistic stock and were connected especially closely with
        the Havasupai, the Yavapai apparently standing next.

        Location.- On the middle course of the Colorado River, above the
        Mohave Indians, between Sacramento Wash and National Canyon and
        inland, extending south almost to Bill Williams Fork.

                           Subdivisions and Villages

        Kroeber and his collaborators give the following:

        A. Mata'va-kopai (north people) (the northwestern division).
        Villages: Hadu'-ba, Hai'ya, Hathekava-kio, Huwuskot, Kahwaga,
        Kwa'thekithe'i'ta, Mati'bika, Tanyika";

        B. Soto'lve-kopai (west people) (the Cerbat Mountains and the
        country west to the Colorado). Villages: Chimethi'ap, Ha-kamue",
        Haka-tovahadja, Hamte", Ha'theweli'-kio', Ivthi'ya-tanakwe,
        Kenyua'tei, Kwateha, Nyi'l'ta, Quwi'-nye-ha, Thawinuya,
        Waika'i'la, Wa-nye-ha', Wi'ka-tavata'va, Wi-kauea'ta,
        Winya'-ke-tawasa, Wiyakana'mo;

        C. Ko'o'u-kopai (mesa people) (north central section).- Villages:
        Crozier (American name), Djiwa'ldja, Hak-taia'kava, Haktutu'deva,
        He'i, Katha't-nye-ha', Muketega'de, Qwa'ga-we', Sewi",
        Taki'otha'wa, Wi-kanyo";

        D. Nyau-koyal (east people) (east of the point where Truxton
        Canyon begins to cut its way down to Hualpai Valley).- Villages:

        Agwa'da, Ha'ke-takwi'va, Haksa", Ha'nya-djiluwa'ya,
        Tha've-nalnalwi'dje, Wiwakwa'ga, Yign't;

        E. Hakia' tce-pai (?) or Talta'l-kuwa (came?) (about the Mohon
        Mountains).- Villages: Hakeskia'l, Hakia'ch, Ka'nyu'tekwa',
        Tha'va-ka-lavala'va, Wi-ka-tava, Witevikivol, Witkitana'kwa;

        F. Kwe'va-kopai (south people).- Villages: Chivekaha',
        Djimwa'nsevio", Ha-djiluwa'ya, Hapu'k, Kwakwa', Kwal-hwa'ta,
        Kwatha'wa, Tak-mi'nva;

        G. Hua'la-pai, Howa'laa-pai (pine people) (at the northern end of
        the Hualpai Mountains, extending in a rough half-circle from east
        to west.)- Villages: Hake-djeka'dja, Ilwi'-nya-ha', Kahwa't,
        Tak-tada'pa.

        History.- It is possible that some of the Walapai were
        encountered hy Hernando de Alarcon in 1640, and at any rate
        Marcos Farfan de los Godos met them in 1598, and Francisco Garces
        in 1776;. Their history since that time has been little different
        from that of the other Yuman tribes of the region.

        Population.- Mooney (1928) estimates that there were 700 Walapai
        in 1680, but estimates of native informants regarded by Kroeber
        and his associates as reliable would give a population of more
        than 1,000 previous to 1880. There were 728 in 1889; 631 in 1897;
        501 in 1910, according to the census of that year; 440 in 1923;
        and 449 in 1932; 454 in 1937. (See Havasupai.)

        
Yavapai
. According to the Handbook of American Indians (Hodge,
        1907, 1910), from enyaeva, "sun," and pai, "people," and thus
        signifying "people of the sun," but the southeastern Yavapai
        interpreted it to mean "crooked-mouth people," that is, a "sulky"
        people who do not agree with other peoples (fide Gifford, 1936).
        Also called:

             Apache Mohaves, in Rep. Office Ind. Aff., 1869, p. 92; 1870.
             Apaches, by Garces in 1775-76 (Diary, p. 446, 1900); also by
        Spaniards.
             Cruzados, by Ohate in 1598 (Col. Doc. Ined., vol. 16, p.
        276, 1864-84).
             Dil-zha, by White (MS.); Apache name meaning "Indians living
        where there are red ants."
             E-nyae-va Pai, by Ewing (1892, p. 203), meaning "sun people"
        because they were sun worshipers.
             Gohun, by Ten Kate, (1884, p. 5), Apache name.
             Har-dil-zhays, by White (1875 MS.), Apache name.
             Inya'vape, by Harrington (1908, p. 324), Walapai name.
             Jum-pys, by Heintzelman, (1857, p. 44)
             Kohenins, by Corbusier (1886, p. 276), Apache name.
             Ku-we-ve-ka pai-ya, by Corbusier (MS., p. 27); said to be
        own name, because they live in the south.
             Nyavapai, by Gorbusier (1886, p. 276).
             Taros, by Garces in 1775-76 (Diary, p. 446, 1900), Pima
        name.
             Yampaos, by Whipple (1856, p. 103).

        Connections.- The Yavapai belonged to the Yuman branch of the
        Hokan linguistic family, their closest cultural affiliations
        being with the Havasupai and Walapai.

        Location.- In western Arizona from the Pinal and Mazatzal
        Mountains to the country of the Halchidhoma and Chemehuevi in the
        neighborhood of Colorado River and from Williams and Santa Maria
        Rivers, including the valleys of the smaller branches, to the
        neighborhood of the Gila River.

                              Subdivisions

        Gifford gives the following:

        A. Kewevikopaya or Southeastern Yavapai, which included the
        Walkamepa Band (along the southerly highway from Miami to Phoenix
        via Superior), and the Wikedjasapa Band (along the present Apache
        trail highway from Phoenix to Miami via Roosevelt Dam). These
        included the following exogamous bands: Limited to the Walkamepa
        Band- Ilihasitumapa (original home in the Pinal Mountains);
        limited to the Wikedjasapa Band: Amahiyukpa (claiming as their
        homeland the high mountains on the west side of the Verde River,
        just north of Lime Creek and directly opposite the territory of
        the Yelyuchopa Clan), Atachiopa (who originated in the mountains
        west of Cherry), Hakayopa (whose inland homeland was Sunflower
        Valley, south of Mazatzal Peak, high in the Mazatzal Mountains,
        and west of Fort Reno in the Tonto Basin), Hichapulvapa (whose
        country was the Mazatzal Mountains southward from the East
        Verde River and westward from North Peak and Mazatzal Peak);
        represented in both bands: Iiwilkamepa (who considered the
        mountainous country between the Superstition and Pinal Mountains
        as their homeland), Matkawatapa (said to have originated from
        intermarriage between people of the Walkamepa Band and Apache
        from the Sierra Ancha), Onalkeopa (whose original homeland was in
        the Mazatzal Mountains between the lands of the Hichapulvapa and
        Yelyuchopa clans but who moved later south into the territory of
        the Walkamepa Band), Yelyuchopa (who claimed as their homeland
        the Mazatzal Mountains between the territories of the Hakayopa
        and Hichapulvapa clans). Cuercomache (on one of the heads of
        Diamond Creek, near the Grand Canyon of the Colorado) is given as
        a village.  Amanyika was the principal camp site of the
        Wikedjasapa south of the Salt River.

        B. Yavepe or Northeastern Yavapai, including.

        a. Yavepe proper (claiming upper Verde Valley and the mountains
        on either side, including the Montezuma National Monument), whose
        bands were: Wipukupa (occupying caves in Redrock country,
        probably in the region designated as Red Buttes on maps, and
        descending Oak Creek to plant maize in certain moist flats and to
        gather mesquite in Verde Valley), Matkitwawipa (people of upper
        Verde Valley, East Verde River, Fossil Creek, Clear Creek,
        ranging south to Cave Creek, and Walkey-anyanyepa (people of the
        mesa to which Jerome clings).

        b. Mat-haupapaya (inhabiting the massif from Prescott to Crown
        King and Bumble Bee), and including: Wikutepa (the Granite Peak
        Band) and Wikenichapa (the Black Mountains or Crown King Band).

        C. Tolkepaya or Western Yavapai, including: Hakupakapa or
        Inyokapa (inhabitants of mountains north of Congress); Hakehelapa
        Wiltaikapaya (people of Harquahals and Harcuvar Mountains on
        either side of Wiltaika (Salome); People's Valley, Kirkland
        Valley (upper drainage of Hassayampa Creek near Wickenburg and
        region around Hillside); Haka-whatapa or Matakwarapa (who
        formerly lived at La Paz and Castle Dome).

        History.- Gifford (1936) states that "the earliest probable
        mention" of the Yavapai "is by Luxan of the Espejo expedition,
        who in 1582-1583 apparently visited only the country of the
        Northeastern Yavapai." In 1598 Marcos Farfan de los Godos met
        them and called them Cruzados because they wore small crosses on
        their heads, and in 1604 Juan de Onate also visited them, as did
        Father Francisco Garces in 1776, after which time contact with
        Europeans was pretty regular. They were removed to the Verde
        River Agency in May 1873. In 1875 they were placed on the San
        Carlos Apache Agency, but by 1900 most of the tribe had settled
        in part of their old home on the Verde River, including the
        abandoned Camp McDowell Military Reservation, which was assigned
        to their use, November 27, 1901, by the Secretary of the
        Interior, until Congress should take final action. By Executive
        Orderof September 15, 1903, the old reservation was set aside for
        their use, and the claims of the white settlers purchased under
        Act of April 21, 1904.

        Population.- Mooney (1928) estimates 600 Yavapai in 1680.
        Gifford's (1936) estimate would about double that, though he does
        not believe they ever exceeded 1500. In 1873 they were said to
        number about 1,000 and in 1903 between 500 and 600. In 1906, 520
        were reported, 465 at Camp McDowell and Upper Verde Valley and 55
        at San Carlos. In 1910. 289 were reported by the Census, but the
        same year the Indian Office reported 178 under the Camp McDowell
        School Superintendent, 282 under the Camp Verde School, and 89
        under the San Carlos School; total, 549. In 1823 the Indian
        Office reported 708 under the Camp Verde School and Salt River
        Superintendencies. In 1932 the Indian Office reported only 193,
        but the "Yuma Apache" would add 24. In 1937 there were 194.

        Connection in which they have become noted.- (See Havasupai.) The
        name has been perpetuated in that of Yavapai County, Ariz.

        
Yuma
. Said to be an old Pima and Papago term for this tribe and in
        some cases the Kamia and Maricopa also (Forde, 1931). Also called:

             Cetguanes, by Venegas (1759).
             Chirumas, an alternative name given by Orozco y Berra
        (1964).
             Club Indians, by Emory (1848).
             Cuchan, or, strictly, Kwitcyana, own name.
             Dil-zhay's, Apache name for this tribe and the Tonto and
        Mohave, signifying "red soil with red ants" (White, MS.).
             Garroteros, by Emory (1848).
             Guichyana, Chemehuevi name.
             Hatilshe', same as Dil-zhay's.
             Hukwats, Paiute name, signifying "weavers."
             Kun, said to be Apache name for this tribe and the
        Tulkepaia.
             Wamakava, applied by Havasupai to Mohave and perhaps to this
        tribe also.

        Connections.- The Yuma were one of the chief tribes of the old
        Yuman linguistic stock, to which they have given their name, but
        their closest immediate relatives were the Maricopa and
        Halchidhoma. The Yuman stock is now considered a part of the
        larger Hokan family.

        Location.- On both sides of the Colorado River next above the
        Cocopa, or about 50 or 60 miles from the mouth of the river, at
        and below the junction of the Gila River, Fort Yuma being in
        about the center of their territory. (See also California.)

                                 Villages

        Forde (1931) gives the following:

             Ahakwedehor (axakweoexor), about 2 miles northeast of Fort
        Yuma.
             Avikwotapai, some distance south of Parker on the California
        side of the Colorado.
             Huksil (xuksi'l), along the Colorado River near Pilot Knob,
        a fen miles south of Algodones and across the International
        Boundary.
             Kwerav (ava'io), about 2 miles south of the present Laguna
        Dam and on the California side of the Colorado.
             Unnamed town, a little east of the present site of Picacho,
        at the foot of the Chocolate Mountains.

        History.- Neither Alarcon, who ascended the Colorado River in
        1540, nor Onate, who visited it in 1604, mentions the Yuma, but
        in the case of Onate this may be accounted for by the fact that
        these Indians were then living exclusively on the west side of
        the river, which he did not reach. The first explorer to mention
        them by name seems to have been Father Kino, 1701-2; and Garces,
        1771, and Anza, 1774 and 1775, have a great deal to say about
        them. Garces and Eixarch remained among them in 1775. (See Kino
        (1726), and Garces (1900).) Most of their territory passed under
        the control of the United States by the treaty of Guadalupe
        Hidalgo in 1848, and the remainder in consequence of the Gadsden
        Purchase of 1853. After the founding of Fort Yuma, contacts
        between the Whites and this tribe became intimate. Most of them
        were ultimately concentrated on the Colorado River and Yuma
        Reservations.

        Population.- Garces (1776) estimated that there were 3,000 Yuma,
        but Anza (see Coues, 1900) raises this to 3,500. An estimate
        attributed to M. Leroux dating from "early in the 19th century,"
        again gives 3,000. According to the Report of the United States
        Indian Office for 1910, there were then 655 individuals belonging
        to the tribe, but the census of that year gives 834. The Indian
        Office figure for 1923 is 826 and that for 1929, 826, but the
        United States Census for 1920 increases it very materially, to
        2,306. However, the Report of the Indian Office for 1937 gives
        only 848.

        Connections in which they have become noted.- Besides giving its
        name to the Yuman stock, the name Yuma is preserved by counties
        in Arizona and Colorado; localities in Yuma County, Ariz., Yuma
        County, Colo.; Cloud County, Kans.; Taylor County, Ky; Wexford
        County, Mich.; and Carroll County, Tenn.







        

Arkansas -


        The Indian Tribes of North America by John R. Swanton

        
Caddo
. These Indians are treated under the five following heads.
        Adai and the Natchitoches Confederacy in Louisiana, Eyeish and
        the Hasinai Confederacy in Arkansas, and Kadohadacho Confederacy
        in Texas. Tribes of the Kadohadacho Confederacy are the only ones
        known to have lived in Arkansas.

        
Cahinnio
. One of the tribes connected with the Kadohadacho
        Confederacy (q.v. under Texas).

        
Cherokee
. Some Cherokee lived in this state while they were on
        their way from their old territories to Oklahoma, and a tract of
        land in northwestern Arkansas was granted them by treaty in 1817,
        which in 1828 they re-ceded to the United States Government. (See
        Tennessee.)

        
Chickasaw
. Chickasaw passed through Arkansas on their way to
        Oklahoma but owned no land there. (See Mississippi.)

        
Choctaw
. The Choctaw had a village on the lower course of
        Arkansas River in 1805 and they owned a large strip of territory
        in the western part of the State, granted to them by the treaty
        of Doak's Stand, October 18, 1820. They surrendered the latter in
        a treaty concluded at Washington, January 20, 1825. (See
        Mississippi.)

        
Illinois
. When Europeans first descended the Mississippi an
        Illinois division known as Michigamea, "Big Water", was settled
        in northeastern Arkansas about a lake known by their name,
        probably the present Big Lake in Mississippi County. They had
        probably come from the region now embraced in the State of
        Illinois only a short time before, perhaps from a village entered
        on some maps as "the old village of the Michigamea." Toward the
        end of the seventeenth century they were driven north again by
        the Quapaw or Chickasaw and united with the cognate Kaskaskia.
        (See Illinois.)

        
Kaskinampo
. This tribe appears to have been encountered by De
        Soto in what is now the State of Arkansas in 1541. (See
        Tennessee.)

        
Michigamea
. (See Illinois above.)

        
Mosopelea
, see Ofo.

        
Ofo
. If these are the Mosopelca, as seems assured, they appear to
        have lived for a short time near the end of the seventeenth
        century in the neighborhood of the Quapaw on the lower course of
        Arkansas River before moving farther south. (See Mississippi.)

        
Osage
. The Osage hunted over much of the northern, and
        particularly northwestern, part of Arkansas and claimed all lands
        now included in the State as far south as Arkansas River. They
        ceded most of their claims to these to the United States Government
        in a treaty signed at Fort Clark, Louisiana Territory, in
        1808, and the remainder by treaties at St. Louis, September 25,
        1818, and June 2, 1825. (See Missouri.)

        
Quapaw
. Meaning "downstream people." They were known by some form
        of this word to the Omaha, Ponca, Kansa, Osage, and Creeks. Also
        called:

             Akansa, or Arkansas, by the Illinois and other Algonquian
        Indians, a name probably derived from one of the Quapaw social
        subdivisions.
             Benux Hommes, a name given them by the French.
             Bow Indians, so-called probably because the bow wood from
        the Osage orange came from or through their country.
             Ima, by the Caddo, probably from one of their towns.
             Papikaha, on Marquette's map (1673).
             Utsushuat, Wyandot name, meaning "wild apple," and referring
        to the fruit of the Carica papaya.

        Connections.- The Quapaw were one of the five tribes belonging to
        what J.O. Dorsey (1897) called the Cegiha division of the Siouan
        linguistic stock.

        Location.- At or near the mouth of Arkansas River. (See also
        Louisiana, Kansas, Mississippi, Oklahoma, and Texas.)

                                 Villages

        Tongigua, on the Mississippi side of Mississippi River above the
        mouth of the Arkansas, probably in Bolivar County, Miss.

        Tourima, at the junction of White River with the Mississippi,
        Desha County, probably the town elsewhere called Imaha.

        Ukakhpakhti, on the Mississippi, probably in Phillips County.

        Uzutiuhi, on the south side of the lower course of Arkansas River
        not far from Arkansas Post.

        History.- Before the French became acquainted with this tribe (in
        1673) the Quapaw had lived on Ohio River above its junction with
        the Wabash, and that portion of the Ohio was known as Arkansas
        River by the Illinois from this circumstance. It was formerly
        thought that the Pacaha or Capaha met by De Soto in this part of
        Arkansas were the tribe in question, but it is not probable that
        they had left the Ohio then, and the name Capaha, the form on
        which the relationship is supposed to be established, is probably
        incorrect. In 1673 Marquette visited them and turned back at
        their towns without descending the Mississippi any farther. La
        Salle in 1682, Tonti in 1686, and all subsequent voyagers down
        and up the Mississippi mention them, and they soon became firm
        allies of the French. Shortly after Marquette's visit they were
        ravaged by pestilence and the Ukakhpakhti village was moved
        farther downstream. A few years later and before 1700 the people
        of Tongigua moved across and settled with those of Tourima, and
        still later all of the towns moved to the Mississippi to the
        Arkansas. Le Page du Pratz (1758) encountered them about 12 miles
        above the entrance of White River. Sibley (1832) found them in
        1806 on the south side of Arkansas River about 12 miles above
        Arkansas Post. By a treaty signed at St. Louis, August 24, 1818,
        the Quapaw ceded all their claims south of Arkansas River except
        a small territory between Arkansas Post and Little Rock,
        extending inland to Saline River. The latter was also given up in
        a treaty signed November 15,1824, at Harrington's, Arkansas
        Territory, and the tribe agreed to live in the country of the
        Caddo Indians. They were assigned by the Caddo a tract on Bayou
        Treache on the south side of Red River, but it was frequently
        overflowed, their crops were often destroyed, and there was much
        sickness, and in consequence they soon returned to their old
        country. There they annoyed the white settlers so much that by a
        treaty signed May 13, 1833, the United States Government conveyed
        to them 150 sections of land in the extreme southeastern part of
        Kansas and the northeastern part of Indian Territory, to which
        they in turn agreed to move. February 23, 1867, they ceded their
        lands in Kansas and the northern part of their lands in Indian
        Territory. In 1877 the Ponca were brought to the Quapaw
        Reservation for a short time, and when they removed to their own
        reservation west of the Osage most of the Quapaw went with them.
        Still later the lands of the Quapaw were allotted in severalty
        and they are now citizens of Oklahoma.

        Population.- Mooney (1929) estimated that in 1650 the Quapaw
        numbered 2,500. In 1750 Father Vivier stated that they had about
        400 warriors or about 1,400 souls. In 1766, however, the British
        Indian Agent, Jolm Stuart, reported that they had but 220 gunmen.
        Porter estimated that the total Quapaw population in 1829 was
        500. In 1843 it was 476. In 1885 there were 120 on the Osage
        Reservation and 54 on the Quapaw Reservation, and in 1890, 198 on
        both. The census of 1910 gave 231, but the Indian Office Report
        of 1916, 333, and that of 1923, 347. The census of 1930 returned
        222.


        Connection in which they have become noted.- The native form of
        the name of this tribe, Quapaw, is but seldom used
        topographically, although there is a village of the name in
        Ottawa County, Okla., but Arkansas, the term applied to them by
        the Illinois Indians, has become affixed to one of the largest
        branches of the Mississippi and to one of the States of the
        American Union. It has also been given to a county and mountain
        in Arkansas and to cities in that State and in Kansas.

        
Tunica
. From some names given by the chroniclers of De Soto it is
        probable that the Tunica or some tribes speaking their language
        were living in Arkansas in his time. In fact it is not unlikely
        that the Pacaha or Capaha, who have often been identified with
        the Quapaw, were one of these. In later historic times they
        camped in the northeastern part of Louisiana and probably in
        neighboring sections of Arkansas. (See Mississippi.)

        
Yazoo
. Like the Tunica this tribe probably camped at times in
        northeastern Louisiana and southeastern Arkansas, but there is no
        direct evidence of the fact. (See Mississippi.)




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