November in North American Indian History
by Phil Konstantin

Copyright © Phil Konstantin (1996-2014)



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November 1st

1634: Tensions in Massachusetts have been raised because Niantic Indians have killed a boat captain named John Stone. Rather than having a war, the Niantics, and their allies the Pequots, conclude a peace treaty with the Massachusetts government. Some sources say this treaty is signed on November 7, 1634.
1770: Spanish and Opata Indians forces, led by Bernardo de Gálvez, are on a punitive expedition directed toward the Apache. A former Apache captive is leading them to the village where he was held near the Pecos River in modern Texas. They reach the site of the village only to discover that the Apache have gone. They continue their search during the night.


November 2nd

1869: Metis force take over Fort Garry, Canada. This is another step in the rapidly increasing move toward rebellion.
1972: 500 Indians conclude the "Trail of Broken Treaties" march to Washington, D.C.. They seize part of the Bureau of Indian Affairs building until the 8th.


November 3rd

1493: Columbus lands on "Dominica."
1762: As a part of the Treaty of Fountainbleau, Spain acquires all of French Louisiana west of the Mississippi River for helping France in the "Seven Years War," also called the "French and Indian War." Some sources report this happening on November 8th.


November 4th

1833: Lieutenant Rains, Disbursing Agent for the Choctaws, informs General George Gibson that since the beginning of the fall, approximately 1/5 of the 3000 Choctaws near the Choctaw Agency in Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma), have died from the climate, the flood on the Arkansas River, and no scientific medical care.
1879: Will Rogers, American humorist and a Cherokee, is born. He is perhaps best known for his often repeated comment: "I've never met a man I didn't like."


November 5th

1768: The Iroquois sell some land. According to many historians, the treaty signed at Fort Stanwix, near modern Rome, New York, causes such anguish among Indian tribes, it leads to Dunsmore's War. The treaty is signed at a meeting of several thousand Indians.
1857: The Tonawanda Band of the Seneca sign a treaty (11 stat. 735).


November 6th

1864: Colonel Kit Carson, and his troops, leave Fort Bascom, in western New Mexico, en route for the Texas panhandle to "punish" the "hostile" Comanches, and Kiowas, in the area.
1868: Four "Ogallalah Sioux," including Red Cloud, two "Brule Sioux," eighteen "Uncpapa Sioux," ten "Blackfeet Sioux," five "Cuthead Sioux," three "Two Kettle Sioux," four "Sans Arch Sioux," and seven "Santee Sioux" sign the Fort Laramie treaty (15 stat. 635).


November 7th

1519: According to some sources, Spaniards have their first view of Tenochtitlán (modern Mexico City).
1794: After over a year of raids by both the Americans and the Chickamaugas, the Chickamaugas have been beaten down. In a meeting arranged last month, Tennessee Governor William Blount meets with Cherokee and the offshoot Chickamauga Chiefs at the Tellico Blockhouse near the Tennessee and North Carolina border. Forty Chiefs are present, including John Watts (Young Tassel), Hanging Maw, and Bloody Fellow, and they agree to a peace. They also agree to exchange prisoners on December 31, 1794.


November 8th

1762: As a part of the Treaty of Fountainbleau, Spain acquires all of French Louisiana west of the Mississippi River for helping France in the "Seven Years War," also called the "French and Indian War." Some sources report this happening on November 3rd.
1978: The Area Director of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, Vincent Little, ratifies a fourth amendment to the Constitution and By-Laws of the Shoalwater Bay Indian Organization in Washington State.


November 9th

1813: General Ferdinand Claiborne is leading a large force of Mississippi recruits to fight the Creeks. They enter Choctaw lands, where they are received warmly. Many Choctaws, led by Chief Pushmataha, join Claiborne.
1875: Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse are ordered to go to the reservation.


November 10th

1782: George Rogers Clark, and 1000 troops, attack the Miami Indians along the Licking River in Kentucky. This expedition has a very adverse psychological effect on the Miamis.
1813: William Weatherford's (Lume Chathi - Red Eagle) " Red Stick" Creeks are an anti-white faction of the Creek Indians. 1,000 of them have surrounded a pro-white group of Creeks at Talladega, in east-central Alabama. Andrew Jackson's force of 2,000 Americans and allied Indians arrive at the scene of the siege and attack. Between the "friendly" Creeks, called "White Sticks", and Jackson's men, 410 of the 700 Red Stick Creeks are killed in the fighting. Jackson's force lose only fifteen men.


November 11th

1794: A treaty (7 stat. 44) is concluded at Canandaigua (Konondaigua), New York, with the "Six Nations." The United States acknowledges the treaties signed by the Six Nations and New York. Boundaries are established. The Six Nations will not submit further land claims. A wagon trail is established from Fort Schlosser to Buffalo Creek on Lake Erie. The Indians receive $10,000 in goods now. The annuity agreed to in the treaty of April 3, 1792 is increased from $1500 to $4500 in goods. The treaty is signed by Thomas Pickering for the United States, and by fifty-nine Indians.
1865: Medicine Bottle and Little Shakopee, two of the leaders of the Santee Sioux uprising are executed at Pine Knob. They both had escaped to Canada, but officials there aided Americans in their kidnapping, and return to the United States.


November 12th

1764: Colonel Henry Bouquet calls upon the Shawnee, at his camp on the Muskingum River, to deliver all of their remaining prisoners. He asks the Shawnees to treat them gently.
1935: An election to establish constitution for the Tuolumne Band of Me-Wok Indians of the Tuolumne Rancheria is authorized by the Secretary of the Interior.


November 13th

1747: According to some reports, a conference regarding alliances is held for the next four days between representatives of the British in Pennsylvania and the Miami, Shawnee and "Six Nations" tribes.
1833: Just before sunrise, there is a phenomenal meteor shower, which is seen all over North America. This event is recorded on Kiowa picture calendars as the most significant event of the year.


November 14th

603: Maya King K'inich Yo'nal Ahk I (Ruler 1) ascends to the throne in Piedras Negras, Mexico.
1851: Lieutenant Colonel J.J. Abercrombie and members of the Fifth Infantry begin the construction of Fort Phantom Hill, north of Abilene, Texas. The fort is often visited by the local Comanches, Lipan-Apaches, Kiowas and Kickapoos.


November 15th

1824: The Quapaw sign a treaty (7 stat. 23) and give up their claim to land between the Arkansas Post and Little Rock, extending inland to the Saline River. They agree to live in land promised to the Caddo Indians. The treaty is signed at Harrisons, in Arkansas territory.
1861: The Potawatomi sign a treaty. (12 stat.1191). The treaty sets aside some lands for common tribal usage and other lands are set aside for individual Indians.


November 16th

1811: According to some sources, Tecumseh predicts a "light across the sky" tonight. It is supposed to have appeared, as predicted.
1885: In Regina, Saskatchewan, Louis Riel (fil) is executed by hanging.


November 17th

1764: Part of Pontiac's army surrenders at the Muskingham River.
1938: An election is authorized to approve a Constitution and By-Laws for the Thlopthlocco Tribal Town of the Creek Indian Nation of the State of Oklahoma by Oscar Chapman, Assistant Secretary of the Interior. The election is held on December 27, 1938.


November 18th

864: The Great Ballcourt at Chichen Itza is dedicated by the Maya.
1813: Members of the Hillabi Clan of the Muskogee Creeks have offered to surrender to General Andrew Jackson with Scots trader Robert Grierson acting as intermediary. Jackson agrees to the surrender. However, forces under Generals Hugh White and John Cocke are unaware of the agreement. They attack Hillabee village, which believes the fighting is over. Five dozen Hillabis are killed, and 250 are captured. This action reverses the Hillabis' decision to surrender. They become one of the most fierce fighting units in the Creek War.


November 19th

1794: According to the Jay Treaty and Northwest Territory Treaty, Indians can cross borders.
1870: On the Wichita River in Texas, Private James Anderson, Company M, Sixth Cavalry, will "earn" a Congressional Medal of Honor for his actions in the pursuit and subsequent fight with a group of "hostile Indians," according to army records.


November 20th

1831: While looking for rumored "lost silver mines" in Texas near the old San Sabá Mission, Jim Bowie, and ten companions, encounter almost 150 Caddo and Waco Indians. A fight ensues which becomes legendary in Texas history. After frontal attacks prove ineffective, the Indians set fire to the brush and trees surrounding the Americans. This ploy also fails to work. After losing over fifty warriors, to Bowie's one, the Indians leave the field.
1969: "Indians of all tribes" are declared on Alcatraz Island.


November 21st

1807: Spanish trader Manuel Lisa builds Fort Raymond at the confluence of the Yellowstone and Bighorn Rivers. This is in central Montana near modern Custer.
1836: A battle is fought on the Withlacoochee River in the Wahoo Swamp. American forces, with Indian allies, are led by General Richard Call. The Seminoles are led by Chiefs Osuchee and Yaholooche. After chasing the Seminoles across the river, the American forces call an end to their advance when they believe the river is too deep to cross in force. Creek David Moniac is killed in the battle of Wahoo Swamp, in central Florida, by Seminoles. Moniac graduated from West Point. Moniac is part of a force of almost 700 Creek warriors, and white soldiers.


November 22nd

1812: Potawatomi Chief Winamac is killed in fighting with Captain Logan (Spemicalawba). One of two Potawatomi Chiefs with the same name, he is a principle leader in the attacks on Forts Dearborn and Wayne in 1812. The other Winamac is pro-American.
1752: The "Mick Mack" of Nova Scotia sign a treaty with the British.


November 23rd

1868: Custer and the Seventh Cavalry leave Camp Supply looking for "hostiles" in the Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma). There are 800 soldiers who start this march in a heavy snow storm.
1877: While authorities are attempting to arrest an Indian named Naught, who is accused of shooting two teamsters, other Indians become agitated. One of them shoots Alex Rhoden, who is walking across the street at the time, in Nalad City, Idaho. This incident leads to the Bannock War.


November 24th

1713: Father Junipero Serra is born. During his lifetime he establishes many of the missions in California.
1812: As a young boy, Spemicalawba (called Captain Logan or High Horn), is captured by General James Logan. General Logan raises him until he is returned to the Shawnee during a prisoner exchange. Tecumseh's nephew, he tries to temper Tecumseh's feelings toward the Europeans. Spemicalawba scouts for the Americans during the war of 1812. He is killed on this date during a scouting expedition. Buried with military honors, Logansport, Indiana is named after him.


November 25th

1712: The Commander in Chief of the Carolinas' militia, Colonel Pollock meets with Chief Tom Blunt. The Chief did not participate in the original attacks of the Tuscarora War. They eventually sign a treaty not to attack each other. Blunt also agrees to bring in King Hancock.
1894: A group of nineteen Hopi "hostiles" are placed under arrest by the army for interfering with "friendly" Hopi Indian activities on their Arizona reservation. The nineteen prisoners will be held in Alcatraz prison in California from January 3, 1895 to August 7, 1895.


November 26th

411: Maya King Siyaj Chan K'awill II (Stormy Sky) ascends the Tikal throne in Guatemala.
1835: Charley Emathla is killed. Emathla signs the agreement at Fort Gibson in Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma) committing the Seminoles to their removal from Florida. He is in favor of the removal. He is killed by Seminoles who are against the treaty or leaving Florida. Many believe that he is killed by Chief Osceola. This is the first in a series of killings.


November 27th

1759: Major Robert Rogers is en route to accept custody of French forts given over to the British after the end of the French-Indian War. When he comes upon the Detroit River at Lake St. Clair, he is confronted by a group of Indians. The leaders of the Indians, Pontiac, an Ottawa, tells Rogers he is trespassing, and asks his intentions. Rogers says he is going to remove the French, and he gives the Indians some gifts. Pontiac allows Rogers to pass unmolested.
1915: Private Albert Mountain Horse is buried in Fort Macleod, Alberta. He is the only Blood Indian to go to the front lines in World War One. He dies due to exposure to poison gas on the battlefield.


November 28th

1729: The Natchez are very upset with the new commander at Fort Rosalie. Commander Etcheparre Chepart is incapable of command. The Natchez attack and destroy the fort, and begin a revolt in the area. Approximately 200 whites are killed in the attack on the fort, which begins today. This is called The Fourth War with the Natchez, by the French. Chepart is killed while hiding in his garden. Chepart has received a warning of the impending attack from Natchez Sun (Queen) Stung Arm; but, he refused to believe it.
1745: The old frontier settlement of Saratoga, New York is near modern Schuylerville. 220 Indians, and 400 French attack the settlement. Most of the town, and the fort, is burned, 100 settlers are captured, and another thirty are killed during the fighting.


November 29th

1691: The Abenaki sign a peace treaty with the British. Benjamin Church has been skirmishing with then since September in the vicinity of Saco, in southern Maine. The Abenaki agree to a six month truce, to release their English prisoners, and to keep the British aware of the movements of the French in the area.
1813: A battle is fought between Upper Town "Red Stick" Creeks, and the American forces in the village of Autossee, in modern Macon County, Alabama. A force of almost 1000 Georgia militia, and 400 pro-American Creeks (led by Efau Haujo), led by General John Floyd, attack the Red Stick Creek stronghold. A cannonade wins the day for the allies. The Red Stick Creeks suffer 200 fatalities, while the Americans post only eleven dead. The village and its supplies are burned. The villages of Tallassee and Little Tallassee are also destroyed.


November 30th

1769: Gaspar de Portolá has led an expedition to explore parts of the central California coastline. While near San Jose Creek, a group of local Indians provides them with some food.
1836: The United States signs a treaty (7 stat. 527) with the Wahpaakootah, Susseton, and Upper Medawakanton tribes of Sioux Indians.




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